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Troubleshooting and Repairing Electric Water Heaters

Updated on July 22, 2015
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Electric Water Heater Troubleshooting: The Basics

  • When I say “water heater," I am referring to a 30-gallon electric water heater, but the same principles described below will apply to a 60 or 90-gallon water heater.
  • The unit is powered with 240 volts and contains two heating elements and two thermostats.
  • Of the two heating elements, only one is used at a time. One is located at the bottom and the other at the top, and when the bottom reaches the set temperature, the heating element shuts off and the top one kicks on. This cycle repeats.
  • If you are getting hot water for only a couple of minutes, then you may need to adjust the temperature on the thermostats. However, make sure that you secure the power to the water heater before you take off the access panels to the thermostats.

I will be going over some basic trouble-shooting for broken electric water heaters here: not gas, not tankless, but electric. If you need information on the other types, I am sure you can find an article elsewhere, but as for now I am going to cover everything that you need to know about electric water heaters.

Video How-To

How to Replace a Water Heater Hose

Before you go and try to replace a water heater hose, you better have some general plumbing knowledge. If you do not follow the correct steps, you could flood your house in a matter of minutes.

  1. So the first thing that you need to do before you start loosening connections is to turn off the water that is going into the water heater.
  2. After you turn it off, run a test by turning on a few faucets on the hot water side only to make sure there is no water coming out of them.
  3. Now you can begin replacing the part. Begin by removing the leaky hose. Some hoses can be disconnected with a pair of pliers or a wrench, just make sure that you have the right type of hose connections to make this work. Sometimes the hoses are connected by solder: If so, you will have to cut the pipe and detach the hose. If you have soldered fittings, the new hose can be connected by using either a compression fitting or soldering the new hose back on. If you have no experience soldering copper piping, don’t try it, leave it to the pros.
  4. Once you have your hose connected, you can reopen the inlet water valve (hot side) to the heater, just make sure that you have a faucet valve that is open somewhere in the house to relieve some of the pressure.

Resetting the Reset Button

Checking the Heating Elements and Thermostat

Although there are a lot of articles on the web that explain how you can check the heating elements, I have only read one or two that tell you how to do it correctly: the others are all crap.

  1. Before you start undoing access panels and all of that, check the breaker box and make sure there isn’t a tripped breaker. If the breaker is good let’s move to the next step.
  2. You'll need to have a multi-meter in hand, and it has to be able to check ohms or continuity.
  3. Make sure that there is sufficient power going into the water heater; you should have two wires going into the unit that have 120 volts each. If you are not getting a full 240 volts, then there is a problem with the breaker, and it may need to be replaced. (I will not be going over this in this article, it’s a whole other can of worms). If you are not experienced in working with electrical, do not even bother, it’s too dangerous, get a professional or somebody with experience to help you. Okay, if you've got 240 volts to the water heater, we are good there, so let’s get to testing the heating elements and thermostat.
  4. Take off the access panels, which are usually secured by a couple of hex-headed screws. Look for the thermostat first and remove any insulation that may be blocking it. Look for a little red button: if it is off, that means that the thermostat is tripped. Pushing the button back in will fix this problem in most cases, but if it just pops back out when you turn the power back on, then the thermostat needs to be replaced.
  5. Now to test the thermostat and the water heater element, you need to turn the power off!
  6. Remove one of the wires from the thermostat. You can remove all of them if you want, but it is only necessary to remove one. Set your multi-meter to ohms, then take one of the probes on your meter and stick it on the first screw, the one without the wire connected. Holding that there, with the other probe go and test each screw and each connection.
  7. If your meter is reading .1, that means that the circuit is open: this is good, this means that your thermostat or element is good. If your meter is reading something like .003, it will eventually drop to 0, which means that the circuit is closed, which means that you will have to replace the thermostat or the element. Below is a picture of me testing a thermostat.
  8. If the thermostat is bad, just replace it. You already have the power off, so just hook up the new one exactly how the old one was hooked up and set the temperature accordingly. If the heating element is bad, then replacing that is a bit different, I will explain how to do this below.

Here, I am testing a thermostat. Now can anybody tell me if this one is bad or good?
Here, I am testing a thermostat. Now can anybody tell me if this one is bad or good?

Replacing a Water Heater Element

So you should have already tested the element as I said to do in the paragraph above. Once you confirm that the element is bad, let’s get to work.

  1. Shut off the power to the water heater and turn off its water.
  2. Lots of people recommend draining the water heater before changing out the element, and this can be done by hooking a garden hose up to the drain valve and siphoning the end of the hose to create a vacuum. Then you wait 30 minutes to an hour for it to drain. You might also check to make sure it is drained completely by opening up some hot water valves throughout the house. You can do all this, or you can listen to me and save yourself an hour and skip the draining: Just grab a few towels and lay them around the water heater. When you are pulling the element out, some water will come out, but it is not pressurized, so if you swap the elements out quickly, you will barely get any water on the floor or carpet (that’s what the towels are for, more than enough to soak up the little bit of water that will come out).
  3. Unhook the couple of wires on the old element. You will need the appropriate size lug wrench to loosen the element. Have the new heating element on hand: these elements come with a rubber o-ring on them so you will not need to use any Teflon tape.
  4. Unscrew the old element and pull it out (if you didn't drain, some water is going to be pouring out so make the swap quick), then tighten down on the new element. Hook up the wires as they were before. Put back any insulation you may have removed and put the access panel back into place.
  5. Turn the breaker on to the water heater and turn on the water and you are done.

Tank Element Replacement

How Do I Know When I Need to Replace My Water Heater?

Is your water heater leaking?

The first sign of your water heater going bad is when it starts to leak water, usually from the bottom of the unit. The leak usually starts as a pinhole and gets worse over time. This is just normal wear and tear, a common problem for water heaters that are anywhere from 10 to 15 years old.

The easiest way to tell if your water heater is leaking is that you will probably start to see some rust marks or water stains coming down from the unit.

Now it may be that you simply have a leaky hose. If so, then you will just need to replace the hose itself.

Is your water heater not heating?

If the unit is acting up and not heating right, then there is either a problem with one of the breakers, one of the heating elements, or one of the thermometers that are behind the unit's panel. Those are the main parts that are inside, and it is common that they fail every once in awhile. You'll find solutions below.

Where and what kind of water heater should I buy?

If you do need to replace the unit, there are many places that you can go (especially online) to find cheap water heaters. Before you buy a new unit, determine how much water you use. If you have a big house or use a washing machine and dishwasher, and if you often have two showers running at the same time, you will probably need a 50 gallon plus water heater.

Please leave any comments in the section below.

Comments

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    • profile image

      Ron Adams 8 days ago

      We changed out the Hot Water heater and have hot water every where but the kitchen no valves have been turned off.

      Do you have an answer?

    • profile image

      Pamela Greene 5 weeks ago

      I See a lot of questions but no answers to anything. Is this site not helpful?????

    • profile image

      Deeded Fulcher 2 months ago

      Why would the cold water be getting hot?1

    • profile image

      Coltrane Phillips 3 months ago

      My water heater is over heating the water. It's coming out scalding hot. I flushed the tank and cleaned all the mineral deposit out of it and also turned the thermostat down. I adjusted the top one and when I went to adjust the bottom temp there was a blue flash. Obviously something failed. I just don't know where to start. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

    • profile image

      Tony battite 3 months ago

      I have a brand new electric Rheem performance platinum. The code it shows is a108 with means lower element relay stuck on and it says replace control panel. I've done that three times and a lower temp sensor and that has not cured the problem. If anyone can tell me what to do because it's going to take forever for them to send a plumber thanks

    • profile image

      Thomas Emm 3 months ago

      Okay my hot water heater is an smaller electric water heater and I have been without hot water since Saturday however when I grab either one of the supply lines they are BOTH hot what could cause this problem

    • profile image

      John Peckham 5 months ago

      I get an alert warning on my Kenmore digital electric water heater indicating that I should check electrical connections on the lower thermostat and replace the lower thermistor. Is it worth checking the connections myself before calling in a service repairman to replace the thermistor? The unit is only 15 months old but just past the 1 yr. warranty.

    • profile image

      Lisa White 8 months ago

      Very low hot water pressure. I flushed the tank and the pressure came back. After a few showers and some laundry, the pressure was low again. Any help?

    • profile image

      Bill johnston 8 months ago

      My brother changed his water heater element today,

      Same problems as I've seen here

      It was a good thing my nephew was here, he works for the water company, took him an hour to figure it out

      The sediment from the tank washed into to lines ,

      The screens in the faucets were automatically clogged

      Clean those screens in your faucets and everything will be fine

      Water now comes out

    • profile image

      Nicole 9 months ago

      No water running to kitchen at all,, on north wall and it's 7 degrees out -9 with wind chill....bathroom getting cold water for everything...hot water heater on north wall.. Are things just froze ??? TY Nicole

    • profile image

      D. Edwards 9 months ago

      Will turning off the breaker switch to the hot water heater cause it to blow up? I just had someone from maintainence tell me this. I've been turning off the breakers to my water tank for the last twenty years, in order to save money on the electric bill, and trust me it does save money! I turn it on when I need hot water once a day for about one hour, then I shut it off so it doesn't constantly keep going through the cycle of heating and it's not being used. Maintainence told me that the "flow" valve is sweating/leaking because of me shutting off electric to the tank. That makes absolutely no sense to me, but I'm not an electrician. I'm thinking, if there's no electric going to the tank, how the heck can it blow up or leak or anything really. Please educate me, I hate being ignorant. Thanking you in advance.

    • profile image

      TonyB 16 months ago

      If this were my site, I'd turn off the comments. lots of really dumb comments from these "Experts".

    • profile image

      Bob 17 months ago

      Have an AO Smith 50 gallon hot water heater , replaced both thermostats and elements and checked voltage 240 volts and amperage was 19 but still not heating water after several hours . Any answers ?

    • profile image

      Sal 17 months ago

      There was no water in the tank when i turned it on and it spit out fire, now the water heater is no working at all and i still have power, what could be the problem and solution

    • profile image

      Corey 19 months ago

      How do i replace the User interface display on my AOS/Whirlpool Heat pump water heater?

    • profile image

      alanbanish 22 months ago

      ome electrical is going haywire, first problem was a dim light in the fridge, a few days later noticed fridge wasn't cooling anymore, change to a different plug with with a heavy duty extension cord, now its working fine, second problem, water heater stopped working, after tripping all breakers multiple times, suddenly water heater began working again, worked fpr 2 days, now its no longer working again, no breakers have tripped, could a rodent chewing on wires cause something like this to happen? my water heater is 5 years old, and pryor to this Ive never had any issues with it at all, the only prior electrical issue was two kitchen 110 volt outlets stopped working, overhead light continued to work, no breakers tripped, and the outlets don't have the little reset button, thanks for any help

    • profile image

      Cara 2 years ago

      Water h oozing smelly liquid from top couplings smells like a leaking battery and the circuit breaker tripped

    • profile image

      Tim g 2 years ago

      I have a 50 gallon Rheem hot water tank that is not getting electric to the elements the electric is on and coming in the top of the top element panel but not making it past the reset button I push the reset button I heard it click but still no power is going through

    • profile image

      Binegars 2 years ago

      Had an electric hot water heater catch fire without tripping the breaker.

      We replaced the whole unit and it is doing the same thing. What could be our problem? Unit is a whirlpool 30 gal. Only 1 month old.

    • profile image

      Puzzled - Resolved 2 years ago

      Problem was NOT the water heater. A check valve in the submersible pump line was draining the water heater faster than the element could heat it, then kicking back on refilling the water heater with cold water. Repeat, Repeat, Repeat.

    • profile image

      Puzzled 2 years ago

      I have a 20 gal apartment water heater 1500 W 120 V that reads 120 V across the element terminals, and using an ammeter that goes around the wire measure 12 A on both the white and black wires (both sides of the element). The tank is clean inside (no limestone) and yet the water is not getting hot. We have replaced both the element, and the thermostat, and still the water does not get hot. This seems to defy logic. Does anyone have any idea what I could check next?

    • caerleongold profile image

      caerleongold 3 years ago

      Hi Aubrey,

      You might find this blog post useful: http://www.cylinderguy.co.nz/Blog/TabId/5624/PostI...

      I was having a whole bunch of trouble with my own water heater (we call it a hot water cylinder where I come from). However, I was able to determine from that linked blog post that I needed to drain my heater fully ... doing so and then refilling seemed to fix the problem.

      Let me know how you get on,

    • profile image

      Aubrey 3 years ago

      replaced t/stat and element but no water from hot tap any idea of what could be the cause

    • profile image

      Lonnie 3 years ago

      Could you tell me why my hot water won't work when it's on by its self but if I turn on a cold faucet in another sink or the tub then water will flow out of the faucet.

    • profile image

      steve 3 years ago

      what is the amperage draw if it is 240 volt with 4500 watt element

    • profile image

      bob 3 years ago

      I replaced thermostat and elements have power to elements but its not heating the water....any answers?

    • profile image

      David from Malta 3 years ago

      I have just bought a 50 litre electric water heater.The installation has been correctly done, however I noticed that the water stored in the tank doesn't hold hot from morning till late evening as other heaters I had did before. Could you please explain what's wrong with it. Could it be its insulating stuff not thick enough or defective or is it something to do with its electrical system? Thanks.

    • profile image

      Mikey101a 3 years ago

      I have a soot problem with my hot water coming from my electric water heater. I have flushed the tank out several times on several occasions just to have the soot return after the water gets hot again in my tank through all faucets and showers. How can I fix this ongoing issue once and for all?

    • profile image

      DawnShu 3 years ago

      Hi. We lost complete power yesterday due to the very cold weather. It was off for 5 hrs. During that time we had no water while it was off and when it came back on. We now have cold water in the kitchen sink and bathtub but no water running out of the hot water faucet at all. We also have neither hot nor cold water running in the bathroom sink. We took off the panels and checked the red breaker button. It hadn't tripped but we pushed it in just in case. Nothing. Could the lines be frozen since the house got down to 49º inside? I don't know what to do and cannot afford a plumber. Any help would be greatly appreciated. By the way it is an electric water heater manufactured 2007

    • profile image

      Bea 3 years ago

      I have an electric water heater. The issue is the 2 hot water faucets are spitting air everyonce in a while. I was not sure if this was due to the water heater or not. I have checked for leaks inside and out and have not found any.

      Thank you

    • profile image

      George 3 years ago

      My sister says when she is filling up her bathtub she can get an electrical shock by touching the water. It is just a tingling of electricity, rather than a real shock. She is only touching the water and not any pipes. She has an electric hot water heater. What could cause this to happen?

    • profile image

      Joe 3 years ago

      I have no water upstairs and no hot water downstairs. I followed some of the lines that were easily accessible and the downstairs cold comes right off the main. No water whatsoever comes out of the faucets downstairs when opening the hot valves. I cracked the drain on the hot water heater because there are no leaks anywhere that I oculd see. Hardly any water came out of the drain. This can't be good... Does this mean the heater is so clogged it's done for?

    • profile image

      Justin 3 years ago

      I have a new water heater.. Both elements are good.. Setting @ 130 degrees... I have 120 on each leg... Water is luke warm only.. When i turn on the hot water in the bathroom i can feel bursts of cold water in it... Just bought this house and replaced the water heater... You can feel warm/hot water feeding back into the cold water supply at the heater.. Electric.. Any ideas?

    • profile image

      Jayeffel 3 years ago

      I think in the third sentence under changing the heating elements you mean syphoning, not ciphering.

    • profile image

      ben 3 years ago

      I have a new whirlpool 40 gallon water heater. The water seemed fine but somewhat cooler than our old one for about 2-3 weeks then noticed the water temperature fluxuating rapidly. I adjusted the temperature warmer, replaced the upper and lower thermostats, but it still takes a long time to get hot water to all the faucets then fluxuates every couple minutes from warm to cool to very hot or vice versa. I'm baffled any ideas?

    • profile image

      chela 3 years ago

      i have speed-o- matic water tank keeps burnnig elements power stays on all time

    • profile image

      karlitto 3 years ago

      Just bought a house and turned on valve to the water heater, I could hear the water flowing in. I turn on the breaker and there is no noise or indication that the water heater is working. It was winterized. Is there something I need to do to get it to work. Am I wrong in thinking there should be a noise when it is switched on so you can tell it is working.

    • profile image

      tams 4 years ago

      we had power surges, now our electric water heater is not working. We tried to find a reset button or something. Replaced the circuit box to the whole house. What can we do?!?!

    • profile image

      water htg expert 4 years ago

      This site is a great place to get wrong ing o. Remember when a part goes bad there is usually a reason. If a water heater goes for twice it's warranty then you have done well. Dumping money and time into is a waist. Replace it and enjoy hot water.

    • profile image

      Billfox45 4 years ago

      I installed a 90 gallon electric water heater 6.5 yrs. ago. Yesterday, I noticed streaks of water coming from the top of the water heater and mainly from the screws that fasten the top crown. It is not a great amount of water, but it is a good trickle. Please don't tell me it is defective...any ideas????

    • profile image

      candace 4 years ago

      I have a 30 gallon electric water heater. i have been getting great hot water about a week ago my hot water was gone my upper element was bad so i changed it. still no hot water i replaced the lower element as well and both thermostats. its like my tank heats up for 1 shower and then runs cold. i have to shut the breaker and then heat the reset button on my hot water heater for it to heat back up. i adjusted the tempature on my top thermostat but it still does the same please help.

    • profile image

      noah786 4 years ago

      hi, my hot water is getting scalding hot then goes cold. I pressed the reset buttton and turned the temp down on hwh. This worked for about 1 day then water got over hot again, 150 deg, and hwh shut off. I reset hwh and now water is 150 deg. What should I do.

    • profile image

      Don 4 years ago

      when draining a tank you say to cipher the end of the hose to create a vacuum. If decipher is to de code, then cipher means to code. how do I code the end of a hose? also you forgot to instruct folks to turn off the power to the tank when you close the water valve to the tank.

    • profile image

      john 4 years ago

      i put in 2 new elements and still dont have hot water

    • profile image

      NancyT 4 years ago

      My water heater is two years old new house etc water is draining from the pressure release valve Is this normal should I do something.

    • profile image

      jlb3873 4 years ago

      The reset button on my water heater won't reset. When you push it in it just comes right back out. It won't stay in at all. I have no hot water. The tank only has one heating element and we replaced that first. Does that mean we need to replace the thermostat or could that mean something else?

    • profile image

      wez 4 years ago

      Recently replaced an 80 gal electric water heater. The water presure on the hot side is restricted. If I have the shower on up stairs and turn the hot water on down stairs it stops the hot water flow the the upstairs shower. Have any ideas what's going on.

    • profile image

      cleo 5 years ago

      we replaced bottom element had hot water for a while now none again what could be the problem it was trippig the red button before we changed it and it is doing it again

    • profile image

      rjs 5 years ago

      I was working on a elec water heater that appeared to be working fine according to my multi-meter. Replaced top therm and element any way because the owner said they had no hot water. The water heater did not have a shut-off valve on the water supply so every time I had to shut the water off to the whole house. Every thing ohmed out and I even had 17 amps on each leg. Today I showed up and they had gotten some one to install a shut-off valve at the tank. I made sure the tank was full and turned on the breaker. Everything still checked out fine until I went to turn off the shut-off valve. That was when I heard the water flow to the tank get cut off and then the element started making a cooking sound, It was heating the water!!!! Opened the valve back up and I heard water starting to go into the tank, no water should have moved passed that valve. After all no one was running water in the house. I did that 3 or 4 times and decided there must be a water leak in the house on the hot water side. After speaking to the people in the house one of the grand-daughters told me the floor in the bathroom has been warm to her bare feet. BOOM, there it was, a leak in the concrete foundation. The water was moving so fast thru the water heater it never had a chance to heat up. I told them the smartest thing I could come up with, keep the breaker turned off and the valve closed and call a real plumber. Some one that does not do this for a living will only make a bad situation worse, and take maybe more than a week. As where a real plumber can do it in a day or two. I knew better than to say I will do it.

    • profile image

      :( 5 years ago

      i have an electric hot water heater and the hot water pressure valve keeps popping what do i need to do to fix it

    • profile image

      Curious? 5 years ago

      I have two bathrooms in my house. Only one shower gets hot water, but both bathrooms get hot water in the sink? What could the problem be?

    • profile image

      Azzy 5 years ago

      recently moved in to a property which has an electrical boiler. we used to have some instance the trip switch going off. as well less warm water due to continues use of the shower. according to the above details let me know if the heating elemnt would have been gone off due to over heating with out insufficient water in the tank.

    • profile image

      Angie 5 years ago

      Our hot water heater is located in a bedroom closet and I am scared to death that one day it will explode and cause a huge mess. Is there anything I can do to prevent this? Will it always leak a little before exploding or will it just explode with no warning? Should I buy one of those water detector things? What is the best way for me to prevent a hot water heater explosion? Thanks!

    • profile image

      Amanda 5 years ago

      I have a 60 gal elect hot water heater... Both t-stats, both elements and all wires have been changed and it was still popping the circuit breaker so that has been changed as well and it stays on but now the t-stats don't change from upper to lower and OHMS seem to be sufficient please help getting frustrated

    • profile image

      shirleyjd1 5 years ago

      Had a horrible leak at the shut off water value that flood under my moblie home i turn off main curcit breaker so no one would get electrocuted and got it fixed turned on the breakers again- now i have no hot water just cold can you tell me why-thanks

    • profile image

      scott e jansen 5 years ago

      I've got an 30 gal water heater that works very well, my problem is some times it leaks, it can go for a month sometimes 2 with out a leak, and then sometimes it will leak for days. the amount is very small and the point of the leak must be some where at the bottom but is not visible. What I have done to stop the leak is to release some of the water in the tank, again the leak will reappear but next day or next month its a crap shoot. can you help?

    • profile image

      beginner 5 years ago

      Thanks for the information that only one element heats at a time,pulling my hair out was starting to hurt!

    • profile image

      Adam 5 years ago

      My hot water heater is making a "chirp" noise every couple of minutes. I have checked for leaks but i see no signs of water. My hot water is still working great as well. Any ideas???

    • profile image

      Richard Blazie 5 years ago

      I have a new electric water heater (50 gal). When the system is operating it first trips the red reset button. I reset the button and after a period of time the circuit breaker pops as well as the red reset. I assume the probe is faulty but I do not understand why the circuit breaker would also pop? Can you provide an answer?

    • profile image

      Rev. Ronald C. Moss 5 years ago

      I have a dual element elec. water heater that the thermostat button keeps tripping, but not immediately after it's reset. I only trips after a lot of hot water is used like taking a shower, or running the clothes or dish washers. Lately the water temp. started getting scalding hot without having the thermostat setting changed, whereas previously the hot water would need little cool water added to be comfortable. Now I barely turn on the hot, and turn the cold wide open, it is almost unbareably hot. What causes this? I bought new elements about a year ago but never installed them because at the time the water didn't get too hot and after changing the temp. setting higher it solved the problem, except once before that the temp. went sky high with out adjusting, but settled down on it's own. Now it is high temp agaain with the stat kicking of only when a fair amount of hot water is used. the temperature setting does respond to adjustment but not to the extreme it's done on it's own.

    • profile image

      Time Bandit 5 years ago

      To clarify for some people out there. The upper element goes on first then the thermostat switches power to bottom when the set temp is reached. Both heater elements are never on at the same time.

    • profile image

      Chris K 5 years ago

      One thing to add is that when you pull out an element without draining the tank. It is best to turn off any faucets using hot water to allow vacuum to be created within the tank. This is like holding a bottle of water upside down with the lid off the bottle will suck air in to allow the heavier liquid out. If you punch a hole in the overturn bottle the liquid will dump out more quickly.

    • profile image

      Robert 5 years ago

      hello i had all my water lines replaced and my water tank worked before the job was done and now after the new water lines are installed no hot water can you help me thanks Robert

    • profile image

      Blaquwraithe 5 years ago

      watts divided by volts =amps

      4500/240 =18.75 amps

      volts divided by ohms = amps

      240v / 18 ohms = 13.3 amps

      Amps, Volts, Watts, Ohms

      ohm ... watt amp volts?

      I

      can never remember the difference between watts and amps so I am making this page so that when I forget I can just read it again. (No Lie ;o)

      Watts = Volts x Amps

      Watts is a unit of power having the dimensions (energy per unit time):

      M L2 / T2 divided by T = M L 2 / T 3

      Note: A kilowatt-hour is a 1000 watts times one hour = an energy unit.

      Volt is a unit of force (F=ma):

      ML / T2

      So that Amps have the dimensions:

      L / T

      Now, this is a velocity? What is going on here? This begs some explanation.

      I was unable to find an explanation on the web after two hours of searching. There are too many documents on the web with the same "overview" type information. So I did what I usually do & figured it out myself.

      The true "dimension" of amperage is, of course, 1 / T , i.e. "x" number of electrons pass through a wire in so many seconds. The extra L we need to make power (ML2T -3) is the length of the wire which is left out of the calculation because it is held "constant" for the pupose of teaching. So if you screw in a 100 watt bulb the little filament in the bulb is a constant as is the length of your household wiring. Now if you increase the length of the filament ( - + - ) you increase the wattage of the bulb (like screwing in another 100 watter) ... but ... if you put two filaments together ( = ) you get less resistance instead of more wattage. And less resistance means lower wattage.

      The complete equation for watts is:

      Watts = Volts x Amps x k(one unit length of wire)

      If you have a current running in some wire, it has some length ... get it? ... but since this is true in any case whatsoever, why put it in the equation? So, if I double this "any" length, does the power consumption go up to double? Yes, even if there is no light bulb on it ... but the amps and volts remain the same? Yes, the voltage will remain the same ... if you're talking about the power company. They will ramp up their power output to match demand. If too many people put too much "extra lengths" in the circuit ... and they can't ramp up ... you get a "brown out" which is, lowered voltage.

      Note 6/27/02:

      There is a mistake here in what follows (pointed out by "Wimms" on my D-Board in June 2002). I can't remember what I was thinking at the time but there is no drain on the system if it adds another "branch". There will be an extra drain on the system if it extends its length to a place where energy is being tapped. It would lose energy to an unused branch only do to leakage which is minor and not a logical part of the problem. Also, I don't know if maintaining an alternating current voltage consumes energy which would make the error correct again for the wrong reason. I will find out when I get back from vacation.). Certainly, a direct current would not, as would be the case with a simple unused battery (which just leaks away).

      Incorrect:

      If the power company adds a line to its system (say, to a new subdivision) they must increase their power output to maintain the 115 volt standard even if no one is yet in the subdivision using power ... because ... the extra wiring is resistance of and unto itself, i.e. it gets "hot", like ... warm. The power company's system is a big electric heater even in its "wait state", i.e. waiting for some customer to use it.

      If everyone flushes the toilet at the same time, the water pressure goes down ... unless the water utility "pushes" it harder. They can't reasonably do this (they would need a variable height water tower), but the electric company can.

      So when you turn on your lamp (add a length of wire), the voltage goes down but the power company puts it right back up to 115V, see?.

      So the real, true, actual formula for watts is in fact:

      Watts = Amps x Volts x Length

      provided that we alter the variable length measurement to reflect a "constant crossection", i.e. a .1 mm filament 2 cm long = 1/8 inch filament very much shorter. But nobody cares about these things except the professionals and people like me who demand that "dimensions cancel out" on both sides of an equation. ;o)

      Ohms = Volts / Amps

      Ohm is a measure of resistance to electrical conduction.

      It is also the way in which prisoners in medieval dungeons resisted their captors. What they did was to find the resonant frequency of their dungeon and hum it. When one guy got tired of humming another prisoner picked it up. The jailers couldn't tell where it was coming from so they were subjected to this constant drone "Ohmmmmm ... ohmmmm ... ohmmmm ...". That's why

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      Blaquwraithe 5 years ago

      This is a 4500 watt 230 volt screw type high density element.

      This is the most common residential element.

      4500/230 =19.5 amps

      4500/240 =18.75 amps

      230v/20amps =11 ohms

      ohms = volts divided by amps) ... so a 4400 Watt @ 220v=

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      Blaquwraithe 5 years ago

      I = V / R (Current = Voltage Divided by Resistance)

      230volts / 13 ohms = 17.69 amps

      230v X 18 Amps = 4,140 Watts

      --------------------------------------

      230v / 18 ohms = 12.77 amps

      230v X 13 amps = 2990 Watts.

      I think you can see how accurate the 13-18 ohms method gets. not very!

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      Eric 5 years ago

      I have just replaced both elements. how long does it take for a 30 gal. water heater to heat back up?

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      Tara1226 5 years ago

      This morning I woke up to my electricity off. When I powered it on, I noticed that my water heater breaker was in the off possition. When I turned it back on, I heard the sound of steam coming from the top of the heater....then POP! There was a spark at the top of the heater! The breaker for the heater turned back off. There is a small puddle of water by one of the pipes where the spark came from. I don't know anything about water heaters, so I just left it alone. Now, 3 hours later, I have hot water!(keep in mind that the breaker is in the off possition!) Also, my daughter told me that there wasn't any hot water last night. Im assuming the water heater went out, hours before the electricity went out. My questions are, 1. How can I possibly have hot water with the breaker off? 2. Is it possible that the pressure is building up (I'm fearing an explosion) 3. Do I need to pay a pro to come out and replace it or is it easy to install ourselves?

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      Debbie 5 years ago

      What temperature should hot water heater be set on? I got both eelements be set on I got them turned up all the wau

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      Constance 5 years ago

      I have the same problem as Kim..we changed our bottom element and now it doesn't have power but the the top one does. Greatly appreciate any help you can give.

      clm.constance@gmail.com

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      Bluenoser2 5 years ago

      Blaquewraithe,

      To measure the amperage, don't you need one of those meters with probes that clamp around the wiring? I'm guessing that most home handy people aren't so equipped.

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      Blaquewraithe 5 years ago

      Stacking?? and dip tubes.

      The hot water in a water heater tends to form layers with differing temperatures. When short uses occur frequently the heater can turn on and off and cause the water at the top of the heater to keep getting hotter and hotter each time. It’s called “stacking”. It’s because hot water, like hot air, rises. It can get hot enough to cause the temperature / pressure safety valve to open and release hot water from the heater, even with the thermostat setting on low.

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      Blaquewraithe 5 years ago

      L Burke,1st off checking to ground is not a diagnostic technique you can trust for anything but safety! Of course you will show continuity to ground if a bad elements sitting in water! Checking to ground is only good to see if you will be shocked! Its not a diagnostic technique that tells you anything but that! since you will need to drain the water to really if the readings due to an actual short or its due to being immersed in water! Sure ,MAYBE IF you know what a good elements ohms reading is, you MIGHT get lucky if the waters reading isn't close enough to fool you using such methodology which is in no way accepted protocol for a sytematic diagnostic , My point which went over your head apparently , is, You dont need to ohm out a suspected element if it has voltage!! Simply check for amperage!! if it has voltage! This is foolproof as opposed to your "should be,might be, hope it is, Voltage with any amperage is much easier, faster and far more accurate! so you can monkey around ohming out an open element that reads continuity due to the water inside the tank completing the circuit! Why use a questionable method that takes longer? simply see if you have voltage! and if so simply check for an amp draw! thats real world not magazine mechanic diagnostics, I have 34 years and an Associates degree in Electo Mechanical Technologies

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      dave 5 years ago

      Installed a new speedflow unvented under sink electric water heater 2 months ago and the water smells like steriliser flluid, drained it down and flushed it through but still smells really strong, is this normal?

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      Lburk 5 years ago

      BLAQUEWRAITH You are incorrect insofar as you cannot ohm an element with water in the tank. I teach plumbing for a living, and I have only 35 years in the trade for a little background.

      If an element is good it will ohm out to about 13 to 16 ohms. If an element is bad, in other words if it was dry fired and burned apart you will get either a “000 or an OL” on your meter (depending upon the brand or type of meter) because there is no resistance. You may get the same reading if there is an internal open in the element. You can always run a test to ground as well to see if you have a short to ground. You see the heating element itself, the same stuff you see on an electric space heater, but much more of it as in a 100 feet tightly wrapped, is covered in an electrical insulating material and the it is covered with a Chromalloy alloy sheathing.

      Your point of testing with an AMP meter is correct though as long as you are testing just the element to see if it is bad. No AMP's, the element is no good. Some try to ohm out at the lead-in but this is testing everything and you'll show an AMP draw if one element is good and it's energized. But keep in mind you will have to switch each element on individually in order to test them. They run non-simultaneously, one element at a time, which brings me to the point that the original author of this hub is mistaken on.

      The first element to come on in an electric water heater is the upper. The reason for this is to prevent what is called “stacking” which means all of the heat will rise, and the bottom element would never shut off. Therefore, the top is heated first, once the top is heated, that element kicks off then the bottom kicks on to heat the bottom of the tank, and then maintain the heat unless the hot heater is depleted or it has sat so long that the top has cooled below set point which means the process starts all over.

      Why does the bottom element stay on? Because that's where the cold water comes into the tank, at the bottom, if you don’t use all of the hot water in the tank - only the bottom element is needed to maintain a tank of hot water.

      Not meaning to pick on anyone here just trying to make things right.

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      Don 5 years ago

      last week a plumber put an expansion valve on our electric water heater. It then stopped heating the water. If I reset the thermostat, it produces hot water ONCE, then cold water again. I'm resetting it several times a day.

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      matt 5 years ago

      low volume of hot water. i have checked voltage at thermostats and ohms at elements everthing seem ok i replaced lower thermostat everthing worked fine for about a day then hot water runs out quick again. can anyone help.

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      jackie 5 years ago

      drained and refilled our electric hot water heater yesterday...now the water is not heating at all. it was heating properly before the drain. anyone know what could be wrong here?

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      harleyrider222 5 years ago

      hi, electricity is my friend.. if the element is bad, there would be 0 ohms, or infinate ohms across the elements terminals

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      georgie 5 years ago

      I replaced my heating element yesterday. The water heater worked fine but when we got up this morning it wasn't working. The thermostat has no reset button I also changed the circuit breaker in case it was a bad breaker. Could I need a new thermostat?

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      EC 5 years ago

      I have a 40gal electric heater. When using the water i can only get hot to luke warm water for 2 or 3 minutes. Do i need to replace the whole thing?

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      Patrick 5 years ago

      I just installed a 40gal electric heater. It worked fine for two days and then got a spark from the top of the water heater. What could possibly cause this problem. Is the thermostat set too high (125)

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      wanda 5 years ago

      my hot water heater wont turn to off will gas still leak out. it's stuck on pilot

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      KD 5 years ago

      If the 2nd stage is out, you will have hot water , it just runs out fast.

      If you're 1st stage is bad, there is no 2nd stage as 1st is from 1st being satisfied.

      but the voltage/amperage diagnostic is real world.

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      susan 5 years ago

      thank you i found you information very handy and the picture was great,simple short and easy explanations.

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      nikki 5 years ago

      I have a whirlpool hot water heater and the water will get hot for maybe 5 seconds and go right back to cold i need help please

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      Clint 5 years ago

      If everything is working correctly and you run out of hot water quickly, check the dip tube in the hot water heater. If you take the strainer off the faucet and there is "stuff" in it you most likely have a broken dip tube.

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      Barbara Burns 5 years ago

      We have replaced water heater elements before. I know there is a difference when one goes out; the bottom element is much harder to replace. In the past there has been a difference on how the hot water reacts. If the element on the top goes out does it mean that we have just less hot water? If the element goes out on the bottom, what are the symtoms and what are the symtoms if the top element goes out? Thanks, barb

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      BLAQUEWRAITH 5 years ago

      Boy has this guy got it all backwards!

      1st off. you cant ohm the elements with water in the tank!

      the meter will read the water as continuity!!

      Sure drain the water out and then ohm it and if its "OPEN"

      MEANING OPEN CIRCUIT AS IN BAD!! ITS NOT GOOD!! YOU SEEM TO THINK AN "OPEN " CIRCUIT IS GOOD??

      WELL IF I FLIP THE LIGHT OFF I OPEN THE SWITCH, NOT CLOSE IT!

      AND THE WHOLE POST IGNORES 1 SIMPLE TRUTH

      IF YOU HAVE VOLTAGE 230V AT THE ELEMENT, SIMPLY TAKE AN AMP DRAW!!

      IF YOU GET AN AMP DRAW ITS WORKING!!

      IF YOU GET NO AMP DRAW WITH VOLTAGE APPLIED ITS BAD PERIOD!

      YOU ARE VERY MUCH MISTAKEN!

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      Rob 5 years ago

      Looks like handmanpro has disappeared.......better call a plumber.

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      Kurt nelson 5 years ago

      The hot water heater went out after a power outage from a wind storm. The breaker is fine and didn't trip and I hit the reset button on the hot water. But still no luck heating water. Any ideas?

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      edgar 5 years ago

      is water suppose to be coming out of the thearmostat

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      Deb 5 years ago

      It has been 3 years since a response from handymanpro.

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      Jim 5 years ago

      I have a room access to the electric water heater which is placed inside of closet. Is it ok if this room is assigned as a bedroom?

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      Melissa 5 years ago

      My electric heater is less than a year old and I replaced both elements a month ago and seemed fine. Now all of the sudden I only have enough hot water for one shower agai? What is causing my element to go out?

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      Michael 5 years ago

      I recently bought a new water heater and the water still doesn't heat up.. what could be the problem its brand new just bought... the flame is on but water still hasn't heated up.. what could cause the problem or what should i fix?

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      Kim 5 years ago

      Water heater was leaking. We replaced the top element where it appeared the leak was coming from. The rubber gasket was shot. We drained the top of the heater to do so and now the water is brown and not much hot water. It has been 5 hours

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      Kyndal 5 years ago

      I replaced my heating element and I still have no hot water, what is the problem?

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      dewey morison 5 years ago

      can I run my 120 volt heater laying it on it,s side

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      Anna 5 years ago

      An 80 gal whirlpool electric w/h had the thermostats and both elements replaced. Getting proper power, but still not getting any hit water. What are some reasons there is still no hot water?