How to Prevent Fabric Color Transfer, Bleeding, and Fading
Why Do Fabrics Bleed, Crock, and Fade?
Firstly, let’s begin with the basic terminology.
Crocking is the color transfer that occurs when fabric rubs against something, such as furniture, shoes, or skin. This happens when the dye has not properly adhered to the fabric.
Color bleed occurs when the fabric gets wet, and dye leaches out of the fibers. This commonly occurs in the washing machine and can result in color transfer between items in the load.
Color fading is when the fabric has lost much of its dye and therefore lacks vibrancy and depth.
There are a number of reasons for the dye to crock, bleed, and fade. For example:
- Poor quality dye
- Incorrect dying technique
- Incorrect dye used for the type of fabric (not all dyes work on all kinds of fabrics)
- An excess of dye left in the product because the item was not properly rinsed out during the dying process
- The manufacturer has not used fixer or ‘mordant’ to bind the dye to the fabric
- The mordant has washed out of the fabric due to prolonged hot washing and so is no longer holding the dye to the fibers
- Wear and tear: friction between fabrics that can cause micro-breakages in the fibers and lead to the release of dye
- Bleaching, which can be caused by the fabric's exposure to bleaching products, heat, and/or sun.
What Is a Mordant?
A mordant is a substance that is used to set dyes on fabrics.
How to Prevent Fabric Color Bleeding, Crocking, and Fading
A common myth circulating the internet is that washing the item in either vinegar or salt “sets” the dye and prevents it from running. Unfortunately, this is not true. Although vinegar does help set some acid dyes, it only works during the dyeing process and not for cotton dyes. Similarly, salt is used in the dying process to encourage the fiber to take the dye, but it will not stop the color from running or crocking after the garment has been dyed. If you tried salt and it appeared to work, it's only because the additional washing has removed the last bits of the unattached dye. The only real ways to prevent color transferring and fading are the following:
- Treat your fabrics with a color fixative. I use Retayne or Rit Dye Fixative as they reduce color bleeding in fabrics where the dye has not been properly fixed or washed out. These dye fixatives can "fix" these loose dyes and prevent further color bleeding in your fabrics. They are particularly popular with quilters in order to reduce bleeding between the patches of fabric. However, be aware that they are not very effective on polyester and acrylic materials.
- Do loads of laundry that are the same color and be aware that it’s not just new clothes that run. The chemical fixers or mordants used to hold the dye to the fiber can wear off after repeated washing, so always wash similar colors together to prevent color run, regardless of the age of the garment and how many times you may have washed it before.
- Many of us over-wash our clothes for fear of been seen as dirty or smelly, but with delicate clothes, you should try to wash as little as necessary. Before washing an item, ask yourself: “Is it really dirty, and does it really need to be washed?” If it only has an odor, try airing it or using an odor eliminating product like Febreze. If it’s only dirty in a small area, then spot clean it.
- Wash with cool or cold water. Hot water tends to open up the fibers of the fabric which encourages the dye to escape and run. If you live in a very cold area, the water may get too cold during the winter so set the washer to “warm” 30ºC (86ºF). Make sure you are using a detergent that is designed to perform in cold water.
- The friction that occurs during a wash cycle can cause micro-breakages in the fibers and lead to the release of dye. This is one of the reasons why you see fading in fabrics over time. You can minimize this friction by washing heavy items like jeans in a load together. Also, fasten zippers and hooks and turn items inside out. This is particularly effective with jeans.
- For clothes that fade quickly (like jeans), use a short wash or a gentle cycle to help reduce friction.
- I use Shout Color Catcher Sheets in my wash as they are designed to absorb and trap loose dyes. But be aware that they are not completely fail safe. Washing with like colors is the only way to prevent color transfer.
- Don’t leave wet clothes in a pile or sitting in the machine for too long as this gives the colors time to leach out.
- Since the sun can act as a bleach, dry your clothes in the shade and try not to use the dryer.
- If your garment has bled heavily and become discolored despite following the care instructions, then you should consider returning the item for a refund.
- For faded clothes with plenty of wear left in them, try re-dying using the home dye kits that are available.
Simply by turning my clothes inside out during both the washing and drying process and using cool water, there is a significant color difference between the inside and outside of my clothes. The inside becomes much more faded than the outside. This process helps maintain vibrancy much longer, greatly extending the life of my garments.
Does Vinegar and Salt Prevent Colors From Crocking?
No. This is a myth. With certain fabrics it does help during the dying process itself, but not afterward, once the dye has supposedly set.
Color Bleeding, Crocking, and Fading in Jeans
I’m sure we've all had those embarrassing and frustrating experiences when jeans have crocked blue onto our legs and hands. I've had many clothes and shoes ruined (even my favorite cream knee-high Ugg boots), not to mention the mortifying moment when I realized that I had dyed my friend’s expensive white couch blue.
The indigo dye used in blue jeans is applied using a purposely inferior dyeing practice called ring dyeing. This method only affects the outer ring of the cotton fiber, leaving the core white, so after a small amount of wear and tear, this top layer of dyed fiber wears off to expose the white inside. This enables us to “wear in" our jeans and achieve the perfect worn look. This method is also used in jeans that are sold as pre-washed or pre-worn because it’s easy to create an instant age effect using a little abrasion.
The downside to all of this, of course, is that it makes the jeans crock and bleed.
A recent desire for unfaded jeans has not necessarily led to a change in the manufacturers' dyeing processes, and many dark jeans are poorly dyed. This is partly due to the fact that indigo is a difficult dye to work with, especially for cotton (it works better with wool and silk). This is because it needs repeated applications in multiple dye baths using the correct equipment, techniques, and a good understanding of chemistry. Due to these complexities, it is often done poorly.
Ultimately, this means that unless your jeans were dyed correctly, then some crocking and fading are bound to occur, no matter what you do.
Denim Fade Types
Tate-ochi or “vertical falling” is the forming of faded vertical lines. This occurs when the thread width is not uniform. The color fades most where the thread is the thickest, and that thread creates a white line.
Atari is the term used to describe the fading that occurs on your jeans with age. But it doesn’t stop there—the fading that appears in each part of the jeans has its own terminology:
- Thigh and crotch wear: Whiskers
- Ankle wear: Stacks
- Back of knees wear: Honeycombs
How to Prevent Jeans From Bleeding, Crocking, and Fading
Earlier in this article, I warned against washing fabrics in hot water, as this can accelerate fading. However, for new jeans, place the jeans in a very hot wash to remove the unattached particles of dye. Set the washing machine's temperature setting to its highest (usually 60ºC or 140ºF). This will only help if the dyeing was done reasonably well.
Of course, this won’t help preserve the original dark color of the denim and may in fact accelerate its loss, so only do this for the first wash.
Can I Use a Fixative?
Fixatives may not work on denim. Products like Retayne work well on many types of dye, but not on the indigo used on most denim.
The only way that fixatives can help is if your jeans have been dyed using direct dye, another kind of cotton dye. It can also work with fiber-reactive dye that has not been properly fixed to the fabric. Unfortunately, there is usually no way of knowing what kind of dye was used, but it doesn’t hurt to try. Fixatives are more likely to help in cases where the denim has been dyed other colors such as a blue-black, black, green, or brown.
Unfortunately, there is no way to make the indigo in jeans stay dark forever. The only way to prevent the indigo from fading is to apply it correctly in the first place. However, the color will stay darker longer if you always wash your jeans following the instructions as discussed above. When your jeans have lost too much color, you could also consider re-dying them using Rit's Denim Blue dye. For darker, blue/black coloured jeans, you can achieve a similar color by mixing Rit's Denim Blue dye with their standard black dye. These dyes tend to work best with cotton jeans.
How to Remove Color Run and Bleeding From Fabrics
First of all, don't panic. There are a number of steps that can be taken before the item is relegated to the “can only wear around the house” pile. Be aware that dark clothing utilizes dark dyes that can be especially difficult to remove.
- Don’t toss the stained item aside to deal with later because when it dries, the dye “sets,” making it very difficult to remove.
- Treat the item with color safe oxygen bleach (don't mistake this for chlorine bleach).
- Make a solution of ½ scoop of oxy bleach to 2 cups of warm water. You may need to make a greater quantity if you have a number of affected items.
- Spread this concentrated mix over the stained areas and allow it to penetrate for 5 minutes.
- While your items are soaking, dissolve two additional scoops of the oxy bleach powder into a bucket with a little warm water.
- Once dissolved, stir in 4 liters (1 gallon) of cool water and place the items into the bucket to soak for one to five hours, depending on how heavily stained they are.
- This process may need to be repeated if not all traces of dye have been removed.
What to Look for When Shopping
- Feel the cloth's texture before purchasing. Does it feel kind of stiff and crunchy? This indicates that there may be excess dye left in the fabric. Be aware that you will need to wash this item several times to remove the excess dye and that this could leave it a lighter color.
- Read the label for warning words such as “Turn inside out to launder,” “Wash in cold water,” and “Color may fade.” These are signs that the manufacturer knows the dyes are unstable. This doesn’t just apply to dark fabrics—these warnings can appear on a range of fabrics and colors because it’s dependent on what type of dye process was used. This shouldn’t prevent you from buying the item, but at least you will know what to expect.
- Fabrics like polyester and jersey knits are usually more resistant to bleeding than more delicate materials. The fabrics least likely to run are those made of synthetics, because the color is added to the fibers while they are being created.
Crews, Patricia Cox. Effectiveness of Dye Setting Treatments on Cotton Fabrics Dyed with Direct, Reactive, and Vat Dyes. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 7(4) Summer 1989, 1-7.
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.
Questions & Answers
I bought a peach and purple tote in the USA that was made in India. It felt a little stiff and it rubbed color on to my clothes. It also bleeds when damp. I followed the "hand wash cold" instructions, but even the third bucket full of water had dye. Do I toss it? Do I worry about being exposed to heavy metals?
Unfortunately, many of the material items purchased in India are prone to running. It's usually because it has been poorly dyed. If the tote is made of a natural material like cotton, then you could try treating it with a colour fixative such as Retayne which I refer to in my article.Helpful 41
Why do you say using vinegar on cotton is a myth? That is incorrect. Vinegar is necessary. However, there's more involved than just adding vinegar. Are you a professional dyer?
You can learn more by reading this research paper: Crews, Patricia Cox. Effectiveness of Dye Setting Treatments on Cotton Fabrics Dyed with Direct, Reactive, and Vat Dyes. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 7(4) Summer 1989, 1-7.Helpful 25
I am making beeswax food wraps with cotton calico. I am also screen printing with black fabric paint. How do I prevent the fabric from bleeding when I dip in hot beeswax?
Fabric paint is different than dye so you can't use fixatives. Have you dried it long enough according to the directions? Have you heat set the paint? You can do this by hovering a hot iron above it or iron for 5 minutes on the underside of the fabric. You could also try sticking some removable vinyl over it to protect it.
What makes the dye bond and adhere to material to retain its colour longer?
It depends on the type of dye used. Dye can be fixed to the material fibre by absorption, diffusion, or bonding. There are a number of factors that can influence how well a dye adheres to the material. That can include the chemical process, temperature, and the length of time taken to allow the dye to adhere. For example in direct applications dying, a chemical process occurs that makes the dye more soluble so that the fibre can more easily absorb it.
I have a client who says our black trenchcoat that she purchased (that we make by hand) has been transferring dark color onto her white blouse that she wore once. I’m inclined to think it is because her under arm sweat or deodorant is oxidizing with the color and fabric of the trenchcoat while wearing. It’s a synthetic textile mixed with cotton but we’ve not ever had this problem before with any of our garments and we’ve been making clothes for 10 years. Any suggestions?
Do you think there might have been a change to the material that you purchase from your supplier? Maybe the way that it is dyed? Have you tried testing the material yourself to see if you can recreate the colour transfer? Is the transfer only occurring in the armpit area? A material should be able to withstand some sweat without bleeding.Helpful 3
© 2015 C L Mitchell