Amelia has been an avid gardener since childhood and enjoys experimenting with natural and sustainable gardening methods.
Beneficial Garden Weeds
Weeds have a bad name because they grow so well as to become quite a nuisance. However, I often wonder why I try so hard to grow one salad green while trying so hard to discourage another. Or when the summer sun is scorching the life out of the lawn, why pull up the only things that are actually green? There is a better way.
10 Useful and Beneficial Weeds You Might Find in Your Garden
- Lamb's Quarters
- Miner's Lettuce
- Evening Primrose
It was difficult to narrow the list down to ten, but here they are—my favorite weeds:
How do I love thee; let me count the ways: Some of the first greens in spring, dandelions make a tasty, bitter salad. Then comes the cheerful, sunny-yellow flowers brightening up the yard after a dreary winter. These flowers are also the delight of pollinators who have little fodder so early in spring.
My chickens just adore the calcium-rich leaves of this volunteer plant. They can devour all the dandelions in their paddock, and yet full, new leaves will have sprung back by the time the birds are returned to that paddock just a few weeks later. Free chicken feed!
If that is not enough, you can make a caffeine-free coffee substitute from the roots or dandelion wine from the blossoms. Incidentally, if you ever want to get rid of them, all you need to do is lay down a layer of cardboard and sheet mulch right over them.
2. Lamb's Quarters
Less bitter than dandelions, the dusty-looking leaves of lamb's quarters are a great spinach substitute. I enjoy the vitamin- and mineral-rich leaves in green smoothies. The chickens also enjoy this treat.
Susceptible to leaf miners, this weed can be a trap plant to protect other crops that are susceptible to leaf miners, such as spinach, beets, and chard. Pick off infected leaves, squeeze the leaf to destroy larva, and burn it or throw it in the garbage.
Rich in protein, plantain comes in both narrow leaf and round leaf varieties, and both are useful for food, medicine, and fodder. It is easy to transplant to a desirable location and can withstand grazing. The leaves can be crushed and used to soothe a bee sting. These leaves are best when young and cooked. I like them sauteèd with onions.
4. Miner's Lettuce
This is a treat for people and chickens. Also known as claytonia, it has a slightly tangy flavor that goes well in salads. Miner's lettuce thrives in shade and prefers moist-well drained soils. In fact, it really thrives in my gravel paths in spring.
This is a great weed to have in your winter salad garden. With protection, it will feed you all winter long. Eliot Coleman describes growing claytonia in cold frames all winter in his zone 5 garden in his book Four Season Harvest.
This succulent makes a great, low-growing ground cover. It adds a tasty crunch to salads and sandwiches. Like spinach, it is high in phytic acid, so it should be eaten in moderation.
Goldenrod has a bad reputation for causing allergic reactions, but it is unlikely to be the culprit because the pollen is too heavy to become airborne. I include it in my garden just for the beautiful, abundant, late-summer blossoms and the pollinators they attract. The aerial parts (flowers) can be used to make a chamomile-like tea for colds or urinary tract infections. Avoid consuming goldenrod if you have kidney problems.
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7. Evening Primrose
A valuable edible and medicinal plant, evening primrose carries a lovely display of yellow, night-blooming flowers. The whole plant is edible and especially tasty in the spring. This one is worth cultivating.
The fuzzy leaves of this biennial make an effective cough-suppressant when brewed as tea. Dried leaves will keep until winter colds come. The yellow flower spikes grow six feet tall and are considered ornamental and are popular in English cottage gardens. I have been told that the leaves make a good substitute for toilet paper, but I can't vouch for that.
Clover is such a delightfully soft ground cover whose deep roots keep it green long after the surrounding lawn has turned brown. It needs no fertilizer because its symbiotic root nodules generate plenty of nitrogen. White clover makes a lovely lawn substitute, and red clover makes a dainty yet taller ground cover.
This is my favorite wild salad green because of its mild flavor. It is also great in smoothies. Its mucilaginous leaves are excellent for digestion.
What is a weed? A plant whose virtues have not yet been discovered.
— Ralph Waldo Emerson
What Can You Use Weeds for?
So-called weeds are usually the best-adapted plant for the area they occupy, thriving on the amount of water provided and hardy for the climate. Many are drought-tolerant due to long taproots, which also bring up minerals from deep in the earth, well beyond the reach of many of our cultivated plants. As a result, they tend to be more nutritious. Most weeds are extremely insect-resistant.
- Weeds are, therefore, very useful as mulch. Cut the weeds down or dig them up and let them decompose in place or in the compost pile. Over time they will impart to the soil the nutrients they have mined from the deep. In the meantime, they will protect the soil from excessive evaporation and exposure to the sun. This benefits the organisms that will break down the weeds into a usable form for future plants.
- Many weeds are edible. Naturally, it is essential that you verify the identity and edibility of any plant before you eat it. These edible wilds tend to be outstanding in nutrition. However, few are very appealing to the average palette. This is why we often cultivate the tastier, yet less durable cousins. However, some are really quite tasty, such as miner's lettuce and mallow. Others, such as dandelion, have quite a bitter flavor. You can get them at their sweetest in spring before they bloom, but they are still fairly bitter. Remember, however, that bitterness isn't necessarily bad (think celery, coffee, or unsweetened chocolate), it just depends upon your tastes. So try mixing a little dandelion in with a mix of salad greens that you like. Or add them, at the last minute to a stir-fry or pasta sauce.
- My favorite use of weeds is chicken feed. A paddock with sufficient greenery will easily cut the demand for commercial chicken feed in half or better, especially for breeds that are good foragers, such as buff orpingtons or wellsummers. My chickens definitely have their favorite weeds. Dandelion tops the list. They will swarm me if they think I have some (even if their paddock is full of dandelion). They also adore lambsquarters and plantain.
Weeds Can Be Beneficial
So the next time you see a weed in your yard consider whether you really want to get rid of it, or if it might be worth it to let it grow for food, mulch, beauty, bee forage, or chicken fodder. There is a time and a place for weeding, of course:
- Just as you thin the radishes in the garden to allow some to thrive, it is important to remove weeds that are hindering other plants.
- Few people want thistles of any kind around, no matter how nutritious they may be.
- It may also be worthwhile to remove weeds if they strain relationships with neighbors or family members.
- You may want to limit the number of weeds allowed to go to seed.
On the other hand, if you have a place where some dandelions or lambsquarters won't bother anyone or any other plant, go for it. See what you can do with these perfectly adapted plants.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
Amelia Walker (author) from Idaho on September 11, 2017:
Thank you, Robie. It is inspiring to hear of other generations making these well-adapted plants a part of their diet. I think you are right: being more careful with the resources we use can make a difference!
Robie Benve from Ohio on September 07, 2017:
I love this! My parents lived through WWII and used to eat all kind of edible weeds, not to mention never throwing away leftovers. I feel like if we went back to a similar lifestyle, the world would be a better place. Thanks for writing this article, a great incentive!