Growing the African Red Devil Pepper Plant
The piri piri pepper, also called the African Red Devil pepper, is a very spicy African pepper that can grow in small containers and under most types of desk lamps. It's an easy and fun way to grow peppers just about anywhere, especially indoors.
First off, a little about the heat of this pepper. It measures up to 175,000 on the Scoville scale of heat. That's right up there with a Habanero and 2-3x hotter than a Thai pepper. The pepper is of a small size at only around 1"-2" and can be deceptive in its heat.
If you are a real spicy heat fan, nothing is better then pulling a ripe fresh red piri piri pepper and adding it to your lunch at work. I myself prefer a jalapeno level of heat, so a small sliver or two will go a long way. If you don't use one pepper at once, you can set it aside to air dry and crush it up for your pizza or cooking later. These peppers are hot enough that you have little to worry about with leaving it out. I can't imagine what a poor cell of bacteria thinks when coming into contact. In my work of three-dozen pepper plants, none of us have had a pepper go bad that has been left out to dry.
Piri Piri: From Seed to Seedling
When I first started working for my current employer, I noticed that nearly everyone had a potted pepper plant on their desk. Visiting clients also notice and ask "What's with the pepper plants?" Finding out who could grow the hottest pepper soon became the fun thing to do. I soon became involved and gave my hand at growing a piri piri plant.
To start a piri piri plant (or any seedling for that matter), you will want to get a Jiffy pot. These small, puck-like objects are about 1.5" in diameter and maybe 0.5" tall of peat and covered in a cloth mesh. After adding water they expand to about 2" tall satchel of peat moss, perfect for a seed to sprout and grow in. At this stage, you won't have to worry about fertilizer or Miracle Grow.
The African red devil pepper will take as long as a couple of weeks before it will sprout above the surface. I would suggest planting 2-3 seeds per Jiffy pot and having about six pots going at once. I've had an 80% germination success rate where I even get a sprout at all. From those only maybe half are worth keeping. You can pull the runts out and leave the large, strong plants. During this time you want to keep your peat pot wet and moist but not drowning in water. Adding a little bit of water each day works well. In a work environment where you will be enjoying the weekend away from your seedling add a little extra so that your piri piri will be happy over the weekend.
An advantage to using a Jiffy pot is that the cloth mesh is very delicate and flimsy. You can plant the entire thing in the ground or permanent pot, and the roots will grow right through it. I would actually suggest this as I have lost several very nice sprouts to trying to pull off the cloth mesh.
From Flower to Pepper
As your African Red Devil pepper plant grows, the first two leaves that come out are the seed leaves. They grow up and establish the plant. All the leaves after them will be the same to each other but not the original seed leaves. Don't worry, that is normal and has happened with every pepper plant and almost all other plants in my garden.
When you start seeing roots coming out the bottom of your Jiffy pot, it is time to plant it into its permanent home. A 10" pot will be plenty of room for your plant but also give it enough room to grow and produce peppers. If there are holes in the drainage holes in the bottom of your pot place a layer of newspaper. It's not necessary, but it can save some soil from coming out when you water your plant.
The first few generations of leaves can range from purple to dark green in color. As the plant ages, it will change to a medium green. Don't be surprised if you don't see flowers for the first few months. The plant will be placing all its energy into growing and will reach a height of about 1' in your pot.
Flowers will start to sprout and can range from white to lavender or even dark purple. Most plants will need to cross-pollinate or need a bee to help pollinate them. The beauty of the piri piri plant is that it self-pollinates. When its flowers open up, give the base of the plant a solid couple shakes. This loosens the pollen, and it falls into its own flower.
Soon you'll see small green peppers start to grow out of the middle of the flower. The petals will dry and fall off, and the pepper will grow to about 1"-2". Just like the flowers and leaves color can range between purple and green. The pepper itself will be ripe and ready to eat when it's a bright red.
Taking Care of Your African Red Devil Pepper Plant
Plants are just like animals and people in that they need vitamins and nutrients to grow. Eventually, the nutrients in your pot will be used up by the piri piri and will need to be replenished with a fertilizer like Miracle Grow. One plant won't use much, and one package of Miracle Grow will last virtually forever. A small pinch a 16 oz. bottle of water is plenty once every other week. You will want to give it plain water 2-3 times a week with a fertilizer watering bringing the total to three times per week.
Fluorescent tube desk lamps are the perfect light for the piri piri. I know that most grow lights have special bulbs and perhaps they are needed for normal indoor growing, but all the piri piri plants here thrive under it. Keep the light directly above the plant no further than a couple of inches away. Be sure that none of the leaves grow too close and touch the bulb or the heat will wilt the leaf.
Gnats and covering the topsoil
There is some negative feedback on Amazon and other online sites about buying and using commercial soil that you will get gnats. My office had this issue, and I can assure you exactly how to prevent this from happening. The gnat eggs come from the soil itself as most topsoil is harvested from bogs or forests so having other bits of "things" will bound to happen. Place half an inch of fine to medium sized sand on the top of the soil in your permanent pot. The water will drain down to get to the plant, but the eggs will not be able to hatch and get out.
Enjoying your piri piri pepper
I'll be honest that when starting out, I didn't think much about growing a plant, especially at work. However, I've come to find its an enjoyable hobby as I harvest the seeds from the hottest of peppers to try to grow different types. One coworker is trying for an all purple leaf variation. For us guys, it can be a fun competition on who can eat or grow the hottest of the hot peppers.