Butterfly Gardening in Iberia
Monarch butterfly caterpillar
Butterfly Gardening in Portugal and Spain
We all enjoy seeing pretty butterflies flying in our gardens, parks and countryside, though many gardeners are not happy seeing cabbage whites, for rather obvious reasons.
Sadly in many parts of the world, butterflies are under threat due to habitat destruction, the widespread use of pesticides and herbicides, as well as the effects of Climate Change.
Fortunately, Iberia is still home to many types of butterfly, and many of these we can help by planting our gardens to cater for their needs.
Life-cycle of a Monarch Butterfly
Gardening for Monarch Butterflies
Many people do not realise that different butterfly species need specific plants on which their caterpillars feed, and without these plants these beautiful insects simply cannot survive. For example, the colourful candy-striped larvae of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) can only eat species in the milkweed family (Asclepiadaceae). So if we really want to help these butterflies we must grow the food-plants they require.
Adult butterflies need a very different food-source to their caterpillars, because the mature insects require nectar-bearing flowers on which to feed. To create a garden that provides both food for butterflies and food for their caterpillars, is the key to successful butterfly gardening.
The large and colourful monarch butterfly, which is famous for its incredible migrations each year across America from the northern states all the way down to California and Mexico where they overwinter, can also be seen flying in the Algarve.
Monarchs are easy to recognise with their black-veined orange-red wings and very large size. This species is a real beauty in all stages of its metamorphosis. The caterpillars are ringed with black, yellow and white, and the chrysalises are a delicate minty green.
This butterfly has only been able to establish breeding colonies in southern Portugal because the swan plant or bristly-fruited silkweed (Gomphocarpus fruticosus) has become naturalised in many places. This plant, which is closely related to the milkweeds (Asclepias), has curious inflated seed-pods and is often grown in gardens for its ornamental qualities.
The caterpillars of the monarch will eat the bristly-fruited silkweed and any of the many species of milkweed. The scarlet or tropical milkweed (A. curassavica) is a popular species that grows well in warm climates and is sold on the Internet as a plant for helping monarch butterflies.
I used to live in Tenerife and proudly remember one week when I had the pleasure of watching as many as 50 monarchs take their first flight due to my efforts. I had reared them on tropical milkweed plants I grew in pots on my terrace.
Freshly emerged Swallowtail
The swallowtail butterfly (Papilio machaon) is another very pretty butterfly we can help attract to our gardens. In the UK, this butterfly is very rare and confined to the Norfolk Broads, because for some reason in Britain, the caterpillars will only feed on the equally rare milk parsley (Peucedanum palustre).
Here in Portugal it is not such a fussy eater and the caterpillars will thrive on rue (Ruta graveolens), an aromatic herb often grown in gardens. In the wild, the swallowtail lays its eggs on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), another herb that is widely distributed here.
The southern scarce swallowtail (Iphiclides feisthamelii) is another type of swallowtail butterfly found in Portugal. Its caterpillars feed on the leaves of almond, plum and pear trees.
Butterfly Gardening poll
Do you help attract butterflies to your garden?
Flowering shrubs for the butterfly garden
There are plenty of other butterflies we can hope to see in our gardens, including many that are found in the UK too. The painted lady (Vanessa cardui), the red admiral (V. atalanta), the holly blue (Celastina argiolus) and clouded yellow (Colias crocea) are some of the species found in both countries.
As already pointed out, it is flowers we need to grow to attract butterflies, and here we have plenty of choice. There are some plants that are more popular than others though, and the butterfly bush (Buddleia davidii) is perhaps the best-known of these. It forms large bushes and gets covered in flowering spikes that are strongly perfumed.
The butterfly bush comes in a wide variety of colours, ranging from various shades of purple through to pink and white. At night it will attract many moth species too, so after dark it is time to get out your torch and go investigating.
Another shrub that many butterflies enjoy feeding from is the lantana (Lantana camara). Also known as Spanish Flag, due to its red and yellow flowers, this plant is very popular with many types of butterfly and very easy to grow. It tolerates heat and drought well so is ideal for gardens in the south of Portugal.
The closely related trailing lantana (L. montevidenis) has lavender-purple flowers and makes a great groundcover addition to your garden, as well as being a magnet for many types of butterfly.
Planting your garden to attract butterflies is part of the fun but so too is wondering what types will turn up.
Footnote: This article was published in Mediterranean Gardening and Outdoor Living Magazine, June 2015.