How to Take Care of a Yucca Plant
Yuccas are evergreen perennial shrubs that are native to arid regions of the Americas. Yuccas are very common in western landscape designs, especially in southwestern regions of the U.S. Some yuccas can grow into a tree-like form instead of a shrub form. They are easily recognizable by their tough, blade-like leaves and spire of white flowers. Caring for yuccas is easy due to their resilient nature. Some varieties of yucca are cold-resistant enough to survive snowy North American winters.
Growing requirements for yuccas are similar to that of cacti and palms. Proper sunlight and watering will keep yuccas growing strong for years. Soil type and fertilizer also need to be taken into consideration when caring for yuccas.
Table of Contents
1. Soil for Yuccas
- Preferred Soil Mixtures
- Ensuring Drainage in Containers
2. Soil Types and Amendments for Yuccas
3. Light and Temperature Requirements for Yucca
- Sunlight vs Artificial Light
- Signs of Insufficient Light Exposure
- Signs of Sunburn
- Signs of Freeze Damage
4. Sun and Temperature Damage Symptoms
5. Overwatering Symptoms
6. The Best Way to Water Yuccas
7. Fertilizing Yuccas
- Preferred Fertilizers
- Treating and Preventing Fertilizer Burn
8. Excessive Fertilizer Symptoms
9. Growing Yuccas Indoors vs Outdoors
Yucca Plant Care
Soil for Yuccas
Preferred Soil Mix
Yucca plants need soil with excellent drainage capabilities. Yuccas are highly susceptible to diseases such as root rot when left in water-saturated soil. A mix of equal parts potting soil, coarse sand, and perlite will provide enough drainage for yucca plants. Cacti and palm soil blends tend to work well for growing yuccas.
Ensuring Drainage in Containers
Growing yuccas in containers will require a 2 to 3 inch layer of rocks at the bottom of the container to promote drainage. Otherwise, water will collect in the bottom and become stagnant. Standing water that has collected on a watering tray underneath a container can also become stagnant. Waterlogged soil in containers is more likely to spread disease to yuccas compared to yuccas that are planted in the ground. Keep this fact in mind when considering whether you want to plant or pot yucca.
Soil Types and Amendments for Yuccas
Soil Amendments for Yuccas
Coarse sand, perlite
Potting soil, mulch, compost
Equal parts sand and perlite
Light and Temperature Requirements for Yucca
Because yucca plants are native to dry, sunny climates it is important to ensure that your yuccas are getting appropriate amounts of sunlight. Yucca plants also thrive in fairly warm weather, so cold climates can pose risks to some yuccas.
Yucca Plants Prefer Sunlight Rather Than Artificial Light
Yuccas thrive in unfiltered, full sunlight. Place yucca plants in an area that receives sun during most of the day, or if your plant is potted indoors, place it by a window that receives a decent amount of sunlight.
How to Know If Your Yucca Is Getting Insufficient Sunlight
Insufficient exposure to sunlight will cause the leaves of the yucca to stretch and become leggy. Leggy, outstretched leaves are unsightly, but that problem can be reversed by providing ample sunlight to yuccas. Turn the yucca occasionally if you're growing it indoors to give its leaves equal exposure to sunlight on all sides of the plant.
Recognizing Signs of Sunburn
Even though yucca plants are sturdy in natural sunlight, sunburn can occur on yuccas if the plants are quickly moved from the indoors to a hot, bright outdoor environment. The symptoms of sunburn are yellow and white blotches on the plant's leaves. Slowly acclimate your yuccas by moving the plants gradually over a period of a few days until they reach the desired outdoor location. Moving an indoor yucca slowly while transitioning it to the outdoors will enable the plant to adjust to its new surroundings successfully.
Recognizing and Treating Freeze Damage
Because the yucca plant thrives in hot climates, the risk of developing freeze damage in cold environments is likely. Freeze damage will cause the leaves to blacken, then turn brown and become crispy. A little freeze damage is reversible once spring hits and a new growth cycle begins. Some varieties of yucca can handle harsh winters, while others will perish. Do some research if your yuccas are planted in northern regions or climates that experience cold and snowy winters.
Sun and Temperature Damage Symptoms
Elongated, droopy leaves
Yellow and white blotches
Blackened tips of leaves
Dead areas with flushed colors
Brown and crispy after blackening
Due to their status as desert-thriving plants, yucca tend to grow best in dry soils and conditions. Try to avoid over-watering yucca plants. They process water slowly and they will struggle if their soil cannot drain water effectively. If you're uncertain as to whether or not your yuccas are suffering from overwatering, look for these signs:
- Yellow and/or brown leaves
- Dead/dying leaves
- Putrid odor emanating from the roots
The Best Ways to Water Yuccas
When to Water Your Yuccas
The yucca is indigenous to arid regions that don't get a lot of rainfall, so you should keep that in mind when watering yuccas. Give your plant just enough water for it to be healthy. Watering needs to occur in a manner that mimics rainfall in dry climates. During dry periods in the middle of summer yuccas may require watering every 7 to 10 days. However, during a rainy season, your plant may require very little, if any, watering.
The leaves of the yucca will begin to shrivel and wrinkle if it's left unwatered for too long. Water yucca immediately when it begins wilting, otherwise the wilting will continue and the yucca will die. Under-watered yuccas will perk up soon after being watered.
Overwatering promotes disease and root rot. Discolored and dead leaves are an obvious sign of necrosis brought on by disease that usually occurs as a result of overwatering. The yucca cannot withstand waterlogged soil for extended periods of time. Root rot will cause the roots to rot away and give off a putrid odor. Signs of root rot will eventually appear on the yucca's foliage. Root rot will kill just about any plant if it's left unchecked. Amend waterlogged soil with mulch, perlite, and/or any other material that facilitates drainage.
Yuccas are slow-growing plants and may only need fertilizer a few times a year. A low-nitrogen, balanced fertilizer is ideal. Fertilizers should include essential secondary nutrients such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S), and micro/trace nutrients including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). Cacti fertilizer can be used due to its low and balanced concentrations of nutrients. Granular or water-soluble fertilizer can also be used. Granular fertilizers release nutrients slowly over time, while water-soluble applications add nutrients to the soil immediately.
Treating and Preventing Fertilizer Burn
Be careful when fertilizing. Applying too much fertilizer will cause harm and possibly kill yuccas. High nitrogen applications will cause the leaves to "burn" and die. Nitrogen burns manifest as brown, dead leaves. Applying excessive fertilizer is usually irreversible, but caution will prevent such an accident from happening. When in doubt, always use half or less than half of the amount specified in fertilizer package directions. It is always better to use too little rather than too much.
Excessive Fertilizer Symptoms
- Fertilizer burns appear as brown, dead leaves.
- Yuccas can die if fertilizer concentration is too high.
Growing Yucca Indoors vs Outdoors
Yucca can thrive both indoors and outdoors. Depending on where you live, it may be better to raise yucca plants inside so they're not exposed to cold weather and excessive rainfall, but if you raise your plant indoors, make sure that it gets enough sunlight to be healthy.
When raising yucca outdoors, monitor the soil and leaves regularly to ensure that your plant is healthy and well-supported by its surrounding environment. Wherever you place your plant, make adjustments to it as needed to maintain the health of your yucca.
Questions & Answers
Should I cut off the dead leaves of my yucca plant?
Yes. Removing dead leaves will not harm the plant. Removing dead leaves improves appearance as well.
All the leaves fell off of my yucca plant this past winter. Is my yucca dead?
Leave the yucca as is for now and see if it bounces back to good health within a few weeks. Yucca are very tough plants but check for signs of rot, over-watering, visible physical damage to the trunk or center, and pests.
Can yucca survive with a plant light?
Yes, as long as the light provides enough intensity. Partially shaded and indirect sunlight is preferred. Overexposure can result in dry, discolored leaf edges and spotting.