Mastering Basic Topiary Techniques

Updated on July 3, 2019
lindacee profile image

Linda enjoys tending her plants and flowers. She has written a variety of gardening articles for a number of nationally known publications.

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Looking for a distinctive plant project that doesn't involve trendy succulents or fiddle leaf figs? Try your hand at the art of topiary. Don’t worry, you don’t have to feel intimidated. Topiary is not limited to the elaborate sculptural forms seen in formal landscapes. Even a novice gardener can master simple topiary techniques.

Topiary is also a great family activity. Allow the kids to dream up ideas for amusing topiary animals and shapes of any size. Topiary gardening is a fun year-round project. Creating and growing topiary is an enjoyable learning experience for the entire family.

Get busy honing your mad topiary skills. Try one of these main topiary methods outside or on a light-filled windowsill inside the house.

Freeform

Freeform is one of the classic topiary techniques. This involves trimming trees and shrubs into a variety of animal and geometric shapes. Freeform topiary requires a basic design, sharp shears, a steady hand and several pairs of eyes to make sure the shape is just right.

Purchase a medium-height juniper tree from the garden center and begin by creating a simple cone or spiral. Make copies of online images of actual topiary sculptures to use as a guide. To achieve precise, straight lines and curves use a length of string, wooden dowels or a wire template as a guide.

Create your own topiary shape using string, wire or wooden dowels.
Create your own topiary shape using string, wire or wooden dowels. | Source

Frame-Supported

The frame-supported topiary technique begins with a metal wire frame formed into the shape of the desired object or animal. Purchase ready-made frames at nurseries that specialize in topiary supplies. If you're creative make your own frame by molding chicken wire around any object or garden statuary. Leave the bottom open to accommodate the plant.

For the best approach choose a variety of small leaf vining plants. Place the topiary form over a single pot containing trailing or upright plants. Weave and train the stems through the openings of the wire mesh until they completely conform to the shape of the frame. If necessary, secure stems into place with floral tape or wire. As the topiary matures trim the excess growth to maintain the desired shape.

Topiary frames make it much easier to shape.
Topiary frames make it much easier to shape. | Source

Stuffed

The stuffed topiary technique requires a frame with an enclosed bottom. Pack the frame from the bottom up with wet sphagnum moss. As the moss is inserted weave and firmly tie nylon fishing line between the wire openings to contain the moss within the frame.

Select very young, trailing plants or freshly rooted cuttings. Use miniature ivy plants, creeping fig or baby’s tears for this procedure. Fill the center cavity of the frame with quality potting mix. The mix will serve to anchor the young plants or cuttings.

Plant the lower portion of the frame by inserting them directly into the moss. Layer plants in sections up the frame. The moss should be kept moist until the plants have become adequately rooted into the potting mix. Water regularly and trim the stems to prevent overgrowth.

The vines eventually will cover the stuffed moss and soil shaped form.
The vines eventually will cover the stuffed moss and soil shaped form. | Source

Choosing the Right Plants

The type of plants for topiary depends which one you like the best. For a vine topiary select perennials like English ivy, rosemary or sweet pea tendrils that can easily be trained around a frame while giving it a full appearance. Climbing jasmine, creeping fig or angel vine are ideal house plants for topiary centerpieces and wreaths.

Woody herbs such as lavender, thyme, rosemary and even miniature olive trees and crepe myrtles all make excellent container topiaries. They are typically trimmed into a ball, pyramidal or lollipop shapes.

Japanese boxwood, yew, privets and arborvitae are the most popular plants for outdoor topiary. Each of these dense shrubs tend to grow tall and wide enough for shaping. They should be ground planted or potted outside in an area that allows to thrive in either sun or shade.

Evergreen topiary shapes are quite charming.
Evergreen topiary shapes are quite charming. | Source

Care and Maintenance

The initial care for a topiary requires regular watering for dense growth. Its best to mist an indoor ivy every day to prevent underlying moss to prevent it from drying out. After the first few weeks add a balanced plant food to nourish both indoor and outdoor topiaries.

Topiary shrubs don't need quite as much care as vine plants but should be regularly pruned as it fills out to create an artistic shape. A spiral, cone, cube or orb should be trimmed at least once a month to keep them tidy.

If you have an evergreen topiary that has been neglected it can eventually regenerate by hard pruning. This involves cutting the plant back to 6 to 12 inches at the ground level. New growth will come back with the help of fertilizing and watering although it can take several seasons for it to grow into its original shape.

Trim your topiary at least once a month to maintain its form.
Trim your topiary at least once a month to maintain its form. | Source

Essential Topiary Tools

 
Hedge shears: Perfect for manicuring and shaping shrubs and topiaries.
Secateurs: Short, precise shears are spring-action to keep your topiary sculptures and looking trim and tidy.
Long-Handle Shears: The ability to cut through thick stems in inaccessible areas that can be reached with short shears.
Pole Pruners: Extended pole handles trim branches at the top of a tall topiary.
You only need several tools for topiary grooming.
You only need several tools for topiary grooming. | Source

Questions & Answers

    © 2019 Linda Chechar

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      • lindacee profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Chechar 

        3 months ago from Arizona

        Dianna, those would be fun! Thanks for stopping by to check out the topiaries.

      • teaches12345 profile image

        Dianna Mendez 

        3 months ago

        I have two in my front yard and would love to try the topsy-turvy look posted here. Enjoy your week, Linda.

      • lindacee profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Chechar 

        3 months ago from Arizona

        Eman, it is definitely the timr for topiary season.

      • Emmy ali profile image

        Eman Abdallah Kamel 

        3 months ago from Egypt

        Spring is the perfect season for agriculture. I think this article will be perfect for all plant lovers.

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