Coneflowers (Echinacea purpurea) are herbaceous perennials that are a part of the daisy family. Similar in appearance to daisies, they are native to the eastern and central portions of North America.
Coneflowers are most commonly found growing wild in prairies and open woodland areas. They can also be found growing in roadside ditches and abandoned sites.
Once established, coneflowers are very tolerant of dry and hot conditions but can also do well in moist, well-draining soils.
Echinacea gets its name from the Greek word Echino, meaning sea urchin. The flower's central eye is spiny and resembles the spines of a sea urchin.
Because it is native to North America, the coneflower has a long history of medicinal use by the Native Americans.
It has been said that the medical uses varied from treating snakebites to anthrax and general pain relief. Because of its antimicrobial properties, it was most commonly used to treat sore throats, coughs, headaches, and as an analgesic—all the symptoms commonly associated with the common cold.
In 1930, a Swiss herbalist recognized the way Native Americans historically used the plant, and he used this info to create a concoction to treat the common cold. The rest of the story, as they say, is history!
How to Grow Coneflowers From Seed
Coneflowers are extremely easy flowers to grow. The best time to start seed is in late summer. Directly sow the seeds 1/2 inch apart and cover lightly. Water well.
The seedlings need the late summer through fall to establish a root system. The big show comes the following summer, where it blooms early summer through early fall. While they can take some shade, they perform their best in a full sun location. Some varieties can grow up to 4 feet tall.
Coneflowers will self-sow if the seed heads are left on. This usually isn't a problem for most people. I like to leave some of the seeds heads on for the birds. Goldfinches especially love eating the seeds.
Saving seeds is very easy. Just wait for the entire seed head to dry thoroughly, then rub off the seeds from the head with your thumb. Store in a dry, airtight container at room temperature.
Coneflowers can also be propagated via divisions every couple of years.
How to Choose the Right Variety
If you are like me, choosing is hard! I try to choose based primarily on the other colors I have growing in the area of where I want to add a new plant. The second consideration is the height and spread of the plant.
Once those two items are decided, I look for the best plant available. For instant gratification, you can purchase most varieties of coneflower from your local garden center. Others you may need to purchase seeds or starts via the internet.
Coneflowers are prolific growers, so if you are stuck starting from seed, you will be pleased the following summer when it blooms!
There are many coneflower varieties on the market today. Primarily bred from the Echinacea purpurea species, coneflowers come in these colors:
- Purple (common)
- New Hybrids Green or Green with Purple
What Goes Best With Coneflowers?
There are no hard and fast rules when it comes to grouping plants, but I find these plants look great planted with coneflowers:
- Black-eyed Susans
- Hollyhock or Mallows
What Are the Medicinal Uses?
Broken down into scientific terms, there are many active compounds that give Echinacea its cold symptom and immune support abilities. These compounds are called phenols. A portion of these phenols stimulates the immune system, while others act as antimicrobials. These compounds work together to help soothe cold symptoms while shortening the duration of the cold.
- Most people use Echinacea for colds. Others use it to help boost their immune system to prevent illness.
- The parts of the plant most commonly used are the flower heads, either fresh or dried, taken in a tea.
What Are the Potential Side Effects?
There are no known side effects when taken orally. There have been rare allergic reaction cases, but there are no case reports of any drug interactions.
I would check with your doctor before self-medicating, especially if you are pregnant or lactating. If you have outdoor allergies, you might want to start with small doses to check for a reaction.
© 2014 Lisa Roppolo
Lisa Roppolo (author) from New Lenox, IL on September 08, 2016:
Any and all types of Coneflowers can cause allergic reactions, but it rarely occurs and when it does, it is usually mild in nature.
Kate on September 07, 2016:
Wondering if the Tennessee Coneflower can cause allergic reactions? And if so, what types?
Lisa Roppolo (author) from New Lenox, IL on July 03, 2014:
I lost a few as well. I'm going to seed some new patches and let the existing ones drop seed.
Claudia Porter on July 03, 2014:
Beautiful hub. Sadly we had a horrible harsh winter and I lost all of my echinacea. I am now in the process of finding new specimens. For this summer though I can look at your lovely photos.
Lisa Roppolo (author) from New Lenox, IL on June 17, 2014:
Thanks! Appreciate you stopping by!
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on June 17, 2014:
That is such a beautiful flower. Nice learning more about it from your hub. Many up votes and pinning to my flowers board + sharing.