How to Grow Thai Dragon Peppers, an Heirloom Vegetable

Updated on February 24, 2020
OldRoses profile image

Caren White is a Master Gardener and instructor at Home Gardeners School. She has been associated with Rutgers Gardens for over a decade.

Dried Thai Dragon Peppers
Dried Thai Dragon Peppers | Source

All peppers originated in Central and South America. After European colonization, peppers and other native American plants were spread around the world where local people bred them to suit their own cuisines. The hot peppers known as chili peppers were brought to Southeast Asia from the New World by Spanish and Portuguese colonists and traders in the 16th and 17th centuries.

What are Thai Dragon Peppers?

Thai Dragon peppers (Capsicum annuum) are an heirloom chili pepper dating from the nineteenth century. They are hotter than jalapeno peppers which are rated 2,500 to 5,000 units on the Scoville Scale. Thai Dragons are 50,000 to 100,000 Scoville units. They are not as hot as Habanero peppers which can reach 325,000 Scoville units.

The Scoville Scale measures pepper hotness by measuring the amount of capsaicin in each kind of pepper. Capaicin is what causes the heat in the fruit.

The plants are compact, 15 to 18 inches tall and 12 to 16 inches wide, perfect for a container. I grow mine in the top of a strawberry pot. The fruit grows upwards rather than hanging down. It starts out green then matures to bright red. A single plant can yield up to 200 3-inch peppers. The fruit can be used fresh or dried.

The fruit is held upright instead of hanging down.
The fruit is held upright instead of hanging down. | Source

How to Grow Thai Dragon Peppers

Thai dragon peppers need rich, well-drained soil. Work some compost into the soil before planting them. Aim for a pH level of 6.2 to 7.0. A soil test will help you to amend your soil properly to achieve the ideal nutrient levels and pH. Plant your pepper plants 3 to 4 feet apart in rows that are 6 – 10 feet apart. I like to add a ring of Epsom salts around my peppers when I plant them. Epsom salts provide magnesium which is necessary for plants to set fruit. You also might like to add a stake to your plants to support them as they grow. The weight of the fruit can bend or even break the stems.

Keep your plants consistently watered throughout the growing season. A thick layer of mulch will help to keep the soil moist as well as prevent weed seeds from germinating and competing with your peppers for sunlight, water and nutrients.

These peppers are tropical plants. Even mild cold will negatively affect them. Temperatures below 55⁰F will slow the plant growth and turn the leaves yellow. If a light frost is forecast, protect your plants with a blanket thrown over them.

They have a long growing season, 70 to 80 days, so you may need to start your seeds indoors.

How to Grow Thai Dragon Peppers From Seed

Start your seeds indoors 8 to 10 weeks before your last frost date. Plant the seeds ¼ to ½ inch deep. A heat mat will help warm the soil. The soil temperature should be 75⁰F to 90⁰F for germination which should happen within 2 to 6 weeks. Cool soil will delay germination. Keep the soil moist but not soaking wet. You can transplant your seedlings into your garden when the outdoor soil temperature is above 60⁰F. In my NJ zone 6 garden, I transplant my tropical seedlings outdoors at the end of May/beginning of June. Due to the cool May nights, it takes that long for the soil to warm.

Always leave part of the stem on the fruit when you are harvesting.
Always leave part of the stem on the fruit when you are harvesting. | Source

How to Harvest Thai Dragon Peppers

Thai dragon peppers are ready to harvest when the fruit has turned bright red. Always harvest your peppers with pruners or a sharp knife. Cut them from the branch leaving a small nub of the stem intact on the fruit like you would on a pumpkin. Pulling the fruit from the plants can result in breaking the stems which will eventually cause the fruit to rot. Pulling can also break the branch. The fewer branches your plants have, the fewer peppers you will get.

How to Store Thai Dragon Peppers

Store the freshly harvested fruit with the stem intact for up to a week in a plastic bag in your refrigerator. Be sure to use the fresh peppers within one week for the best taste and hotness. You can also freeze your peppers. It is not necessary to blanche them before freezing. I put mine in a plastic freezer bag and then into my freezer for use over the winter.

Alternatively, the fruit can be dried by hanging the branches upside down with the fruit attached. Store your dried fruit in a cool dark place. Dried fruit will keep for up to 6 months before it starts to lose flavor and heat.

© 2016 Caren White


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    • FlourishAnyway profile image


      4 years ago from USA

      Very interesting and I'd like to add these to my little garden as something different.

    • OldRoses profile imageAUTHOR

      Caren White 

      4 years ago

      Kaili, you're welcome! I am looking forward to using this pepper in very small quantities in stir fries. I don't think that I would eat them as peppers per se. Thanks for reading and commenting.

    • Kaili Bisson profile image

      Kaili Bisson 

      4 years ago from Canada

      Hi Caren, thank you...I have never heard of these, so I must look for them locally. I do like jalapeno, but can't imagine eating anything hotter than that!

    • OldRoses profile imageAUTHOR

      Caren White 

      4 years ago

      You're welcome, RedElf! So glad you enjoyed it. Thanks for reading and commenting.

    • RedElf profile image


      4 years ago from Canada

      My son adores Habaneros - I can't even manage the modest heat of a jalapeno... Thanks for this informative read :)


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