Anthony enjoys spending time in the workshop, the kitchen, the garden and out fishing. Many of his projects are featured in his yard.
How to Make Compost Tea
Homemade compost tea is a concentrated solution of garden compost dissolved in water. The high-energy liquid makes it easy for the organic gardener to apply the beneficial microbes and other nutrients right where the plant needs it most—directly on the plant's leaves and into its root system. And you can apply this organic fertilizer with each watering to grow larger and healthier plants.
Many gardeners already reap the benefits of using compost to enrich the soil in their gardens. Packed with organic nutrients, garden compost helps to promote strong plant growth and healthy root systems. Unlike synthetic fertilizers that dissipate quickly, mixing organic materials into the dirt improves the composition of the soil, slowly releasing nutrients for the plants to absorb over longer periods of time. Brewing a homemade nutrient-rich solution is a simple process of mixing compost, water and air to stimulate the growth of beneficial microbes. The organic solution is then poured around the base of the plant, or you can use a garden sprayer to coat the leaves with a healthy dose of homemade organic fertilizer. And it's cheap!
While there are many different models and sizes of commercial products available, making a simple and effective brewing system is easy and requires just a few common materials. All you need is a five-gallon bucket, some plastic tubing, an inexpensive air pump and a little garden compost.
The Compost Tea Brewing System:
Things You Need:
- Five-gallon bucket
- Aquarium air pump
- Plastic tubing
- Air stone
- Garden compost
- Molasses (optional)
There are two basic methods for making compost tea. The first is the fast and easy approach: simply stir a small amount of compost into a bucket of water and use immediately. A variation of this method suspends a porous bag filled with compost into a bucket of water, then leaves the compost bag to steep for a few hours before feeding the plants (an old onion bag works well).
The second method calls for using a simple brewing system. Compost is stirred into a bucket of water, then aerated to stimulate the population explosion of beneficial microbes. Continually circulating the water also prevents stagnation.
- Fill a five-gallon bucket until two-thirds full with water, and then add a shovelful of loose, quality garden compost. Stir vigorously to create a liquid solution.
- Allow the solution to settle for about 15 minutes. Some of the compost will come out of solution, and the silt will settle at the bottom of the bucket. Attach the air stone to the plastic tubing, place it in the bucket, and turn on the air pump. The air stone oxygenates the water to stimulate the microbe population growth. Use a small spring clamp to secure the tubing to the edge of the bucket and to hold the air stone in place below the surface of the water.
- Optionally, add a cup of molasses to the mixture to further stimulate and feed the exploding the microbe population.
- Allow the solution to brew for at least 24 hours and up to 48 hours. Since microbes require oxygen for survival, it is important to continue the aeration non-stop throughout the compost tea brewing process. Should the growing microbial population exhaust the oxygen supply, the mixture becomes anaerobic (depleted of oxygen).
- Strain the mixture to remove any larger particles, and then apply the solution directly to the plants and leaf surfaces with a watering can or garden sprayer. Many garden sprayers have very small spray nozzles that might clog, so thoroughly strain the liquid before using in a garden sprayer.
Our Compost Bin
In its simplest form, a compost bin is an enclosure for containing garden waste and kitchen scraps while they decompose. Though a compost bin is not necessary—you can just make a pile in an out-of-the-way area of the yard and leave the material to break down—a bin creates a barrier and makes it easier to control the pile.
Making a compost bin is an easy DIY project and a good way to recycle old building materials. An enclosure of garden fencing makes an effective containment system, and our neighbor made their bin from several old shipping pallets.
Our compost bin reuses several discarded sections of railing from an old deck. The railings are positioned to form two open enclosures and then wrapped with leftover pieces of garden fencing and chicken wire.
Using the two-bin system is simple: fresh kitchen and garden waste and grass clippings are tossed in one side along with the cleanings from the chicken coop, goat pen and guinea pig and rabbit cages. The material is turned occasionally and left to break down. In a couple of months, the material in this bin is ready for use, and we start filling up the other bin. After another few months, we repeat the cycle of alternating between the bins for depositing fresh material into one bin and harvesting composted soil from the other bin. We sift the material through a rough screen before using, and this helps to separate any rough debris from fully composted black gold.
As you can see from the photos, we let the chickens scratch through the bins. Though they make a mess by spreading the materials everywhere, they also help to aerate and turn the compost pile.
There is a lot of nitrogen and carbon-based waste around the house and garden that is safe and suitable for the compost bin, and here are a few tips to help turn those kitchen scraps and yard waste into black gold for the garden:
- Save Your Kitchen Scraps: Fruit and vegetable scraps are high in nitrogen. Save the peelings, seeds and wilted greens for the compost pile, along with egg shells, used coffee grinds and filters, and spent tea bags. Clean out the refrigerator and toss those old and wilted veggies into the compost heap.
- Add Leaves and Grass Clippings: Mixing in fresh, green grass clippings adds moisture and nitrogen to the compost pile, while the fallen leaves and spent annual flowers add the brown carbon-based matter.
- Locating the Compost Bin: The compost pile is not an overly attractive garden feature, so select a site for the compost bin that is conveniently located for easy access but located an in area that is screened from view. Shady areas work as well as a sunny location, especially in warmer areas where the sun can dry out the compost pile.
- Got Chickens, Rabbits, Guinea Pigs or Hamsters? The dirty pine shavings from cleaning the cages of herbivore pets are perfect for the compost pile. Chicken manure adds a lot of nitrogen to the mix; just make sure that the compost pile cooks thoroughly to break down any pathogens that might have passed through the animals. Used by itself, the high nitrogen content in chicken manure can burn tender plants. But the pine shavings from the chicken coop are high in carbon-based matter; mixed together, the chicken manure/pine shaving combination balances the nitrogen and carbon levels.
- Mix It Up: Turning the compost aerates the pile and helps the organic matter to break down faster. A pitchfork is my tool of choice for this chore, but a shovel also gets the job done.
- Add Some Variety: Avoid tossing too much of the same type of organic matter into the compost pile. With the chicken coop and guinea pig cages, our pile has a tendency to fill up with lots of pine shavings. Mixing in fresh grass clippings along with raw vegetable and fruit peelings and some of the fully composted materials helps to mix up the elements and speeds up the decomposition and composting process.
- Keep It Moist: During the heat of the summer, the compost pile tends to dry out, and this slows the composting process. A few buckets of water or a sprinkling from the garden hose helps to keep the pile moist between rainfalls. At the other extreme, don't let the compost pile stay too wet, which encourages the growth of smelly mold and mildew.
- Clean Out the Wood Stove: Moderate amounts of wood ash is fine for the compost bin, but avoid any coal ash or the remnants from the charcoal grill that do not break down easily and can be high in iron and sulfur.
- Bigger is Better, but Only to a Point: Too small of a pile inhibits the amount of heat generated by the decomposing organic materials, but too large a pile takes too long to break down and is more difficult to turn over for aeration. A compost pile about 3 foot by 3 foot square is just about the ideal size for a compost bin.
Do not add any of the following items to your compost pile:
- No Meat, Bones or Other Animal By-Products: Besides attracting varmints and other unwanted pests, rotting meat scraps and bones give off unpleasant odors. Do not compost dairy products, either, which can attract rodents and other unwelcome visitors.
- Leave Out the Big Sticks: Small twigs and woody plant stems are okay, but large sticks can take a long time to break down into usable compost. Remove the rocks, too.
- Avoid Diseased Plants: Toss any diseased plants into the trash, and keep them out of the compost pile. Do not compost any toxic plants (poison ivy comes to mind), including many types of house plants that can also be toxic. Also, do not compost any grass clippings or other plant material that was treated with herbicides or pesticides.
- No Kitty Litter Here: Do not empty the litter box into the compost pile. Dog and cat feces contain pathogens that can be harmful to humans.
- Hold the Cardboard: Though many composting experts may disagree, I have not had success with composting cardboard and newsprint. Instead, use fallen leaves for the brown carbon layers and send the newspaper and cardboard to the recycling center.
Making Compost Tea
The 2-in-1 Compost Tumbler
A compact composter works great in my application. Most of our raw materials for the compost bins come from the chicken coop, the goat pen and the guinea pig cages. We take smaller amounts from the compost bin and feed it into the tumbler where it quickly turns into black gold—perfect for the container plants and top dressing around freshly planted veggies.
Solid construction and an easy-to-spin design are two good reasons to consider a compost tumbler. When shopping for a compost tumbler, look for a design that turns kitchen scraps into dark, rich compost within a few short weeks and includes a built-in base to collect the liquids into a nutrient-rich compost tea.
Let's face it: Saving kitchen scraps is a messy chore. Having a convenient place to toss those kitchen scraps—with a lid to contain any unpleasant aromas—and we're more likely to save those fruit and veggie trimmings for the compost heap. Add a handle and an easy-to-clean stainless steel container in an attractive package, and you have a compost pail that you will actually enjoy using. Sure beats that old coffee can.
Worms break down kitchen scraps and other organic matter into an incredibly rich compost. Simply add the Red Wriggler worms into a composter designed for worm composting, add some veggie peelings and other greens, and let the worms do their thing. The result is nutrient-rich compost to spread in your garden or brew into compost tea.
Our Compost Bin - A Simple Two-Bin System
© 2012 Anthony Altorenna
Share Your Composting Tips
Snakesmum on January 11, 2014:
Our compost bin is an old washing machine skin, with a hinged section at the bottom front for easy access. Works just fine.
AstroGremlin on January 21, 2013:
I have a composter ball and have been very pleased with it. Very easy to keep compost turned and moist without much effort. I can compost small amounts of paper and cardboard mostly limit paper to coffee filters. :)
anonymous on June 09, 2012:
I'm going to add a link to this from my composting supplies lens that I'll be working on for months and year to come...until it gets to #1 on Squidoo, HA!
mariesean on May 10, 2012:
Its great to learn new things. Very informative..I've got to learn new things..Thumbs up!
Annamadagan on May 10, 2012:
Thanks for sharing all this great information! (And congrats on the Purple Star, too!)
getmoreinfo on May 09, 2012:
Thanks for the useful information.
kindoak on May 09, 2012:
Excellent. Keeping a self-contained garden without the need of chemical fertilizers etc is something everyone who has a garden should aim for. Easy and fun to do!
Fay Favored from USA on May 08, 2012:
My compost pile looked much like yours. I felt better using my own materials in my gardens.
biminibahamas on May 08, 2012:
Great Ideas, thanks for sharing!
MelonyVaughan on May 07, 2012:
Thank you for excellent tips!
KimGiancaterino on May 06, 2012:
I love the intro photo too. I learned about compost tea at one of my tomato classes, but the instructor didn't give a recipe and it was expensive to purchase. We get truckloads of compost from a nearby park, and I just toss organic stuff in a corner of the garden. No formal compost pile. Everything disappears though!
hotbrain from Tacoma, WA on May 05, 2012:
What a clever intro picture! :) I'm glad to learn that the compost tea isn't meant for drinking at a tea party :)
Fcuk Hub on May 04, 2012:
Compost tea sound great :) I can imagine to offer my friends tea from compost :D :D
JZinoBodyArt on May 02, 2012:
Excellent lens! Your tips will come in handy!
Rose Jones on May 02, 2012:
Your lenses are always such high quality. :) I will definitely try this, pinned to 3 of my boards: How does your Garden Grow, Nature and Saving the Earth, and Squidoo Lenses worth Blessing. And cool chickens too!
kvp1984 on May 02, 2012:
Really cool information!
SoniaCarew on May 02, 2012:
Congrats on the purple star!
DaveGSE on May 01, 2012:
I thought the same as 'Kab' when I saw the title! That wouldn't be very nice... Great lens once I realised what it was really about :)
Kerri Bee from Upstate, NY on May 01, 2012:
I first I thought you meant tea made out of compost (to drink). Eww.Maybe this is what my garden needs.
vegetablegardenh on May 01, 2012:
Very nice article. And I like your chickens! We got some in our garden as well, they are great "compost contributors". :)
Lorelei Cohen from Canada on May 01, 2012:
It is so nice to read your articles. From building bird houses to creating a compost tea you cover all the many details that make your descriptions complete. Including your own photographs adds to the excitement. I was delighted to see your free range chickens munching around your compost bins. It reminded me of the wild turkeys chasing bugs out on our property when we lived in the woods. What a wonderful lifestyle to have.
Itaya Lightbourne from Topeka, KS on April 30, 2012:
What a wonderful and resourceful article this is! Definitely putting this in my gardening folder on my puter for future reference. I'm featuring this awesome article on my Compost Tumbler Bins article! :)
Einar A on April 30, 2012:
I have composted for years, but have never tried this. Great article!
flycatcherrr on April 30, 2012:
Compost tea is a fantastic way to make a small quantity of compost go a long way, for those who are just getting started with composting.
Renaissance Woman from Colorado on April 28, 2012:
It was great to learn how to make compost tea. I plan to try it. Thanks for providing me with the necessary information and resources. Appreciated!