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Designing My Patio Garden: Making the Most of Shade and Small Spaces

Updated on May 16, 2012

My Patio Vegetables '09

Squash, tomatoes, carrots, peas, radishes, spinach, basil and herbs -- it's amazing what you can do in a small area!
Squash, tomatoes, carrots, peas, radishes, spinach, basil and herbs -- it's amazing what you can do in a small area! | Source

Food and Flowers in SoCal

A few years ago, I bought a condo with a brick patio in the back, with four feet of dirt around three sides of the perimeter. I live in southern California, so I've got a long growing season, much longer than I'm used to from growing up in rural Pennsylvania.

There were just two problems.

  • Low light. The house is on the east, and the patio walls cast shade on the other three sides!
  • Poor soil. California clay is bad enough, but the previous occupants had (a) let six cats use it as a box, so it was highly acid, (b) tossed all their cigarettes out there (yuck!), and (c) filled all the dirt areas with gravel in what I assume was a failed attempt to block the cats.

I had my work cut out for me. And I have arthritis, so I can only do so much. But I've turned what was a barren and fairly ratty space into an attractive little haven in the past 3 years.

On the right wall, I grow fruits, vegetables and herbs. I've usually got 2-3 tomato cages there and fill in around them. Next to them, on the back wall, is a flowerbed that gets morning sun and is visible from my dining room, so I look out at flowers. The left side of the patio, shaded by an ancient, gnarled cape honeysuckle that gets glorious hummingbirds, has my table, whatever will grow in the shade, and a fragrant star jasmine on a trellis that I found sadly neglected when I moved in.

My patio is never going to appear in a garden tour of California's Best Gardens. It's still quite humble. But I've got bright color, birds, butterflies, and vegetables -- even peaches -- in spring and summer. I'm proud of how far it's come in a few years!

My patio garden last year: peace, birds, windchimes, cat

Flower Garden

Five hours of daylight means dianthus, lobelias, delphiniums, alyssum. Strawberry pot is in the only patch of 6-7 hours of light! (Note that I created an anti-raccoon and anti-possum cover for it out of rabbit hutch wire, visible in video above.)
Five hours of daylight means dianthus, lobelias, delphiniums, alyssum. Strawberry pot is in the only patch of 6-7 hours of light! (Note that I created an anti-raccoon and anti-possum cover for it out of rabbit hutch wire, visible in video above.) | Source

1) Mapping the Daylight

Before planting last year, I turned my patio into a giant sundial. First, I cut up a bunch of slips of paper. Every hour, I'd put down slips marked with the time around the edge of the sunlight patch. I held the paper slips down with pebbles so they wouldn't blow away.

By the end of the day, I'd learned about the small circular area that actually gets 6 hours of light, which areas get 4-5 hours of light, which are almost all shade, which get morning and afternoon sun. I've had a lot better luck since I bowed to these realities.

I put a strawberry pot in the exact center of the "lots of sun" area, which, inevitably, was the paved part of my patio, and I frequently put pot plants there! And I now know where the cool spot is in the afternoon that will grow spinach and peas.

2) Amending the Soil

My first two years, I plastered each new area I planted with organic compost and fertilizer. It was vital to break up my hard-clay soil so roots could penetrate, and add fertilizer to make up for a nutrient-poor dirt. I had to dig down at least 6 inches, chipping away and breaking up the clay; it would've been better if I could've gotten down a foot, since soft soil holds water better.

I knew my soil was acid, so I needed to add some lime. This will depend on where you live. Your local garden center can probably tell you, but if not, there are pH testers you can use to get a soil reading (1-6 = acid, 8-14 = alkaline, 8 = neutral). It's best to buy plants suited to your soil's acidity. Or look for native plant offerings in garden centers to be sure!

This year, my arthritis was too much for me. It took me a couple tries to find a gardener who would do the soil-amending-and-conditioning for me, digging down and replacing the dirt. He used a good mix of organic humus and fertilizers.

Corn Grown in Raised Pot

Corn grown entirely in compost with EB Stone organic vegetable fertilizer. Alas, I forgot to take a photo of the pot up on the air conditioner.
Corn grown entirely in compost with EB Stone organic vegetable fertilizer. Alas, I forgot to take a photo of the pot up on the air conditioner. | Source

3) Square Foot Gardening

I have been fairly creative in using the few places that get light. If there's one area that gets lots, that's where the tomatoes go, no matter how silly it looks. I've used upside-down planters for cherry tomatoes successfully.

Since my air conditioner has a large spot on the side that's covered, I use it as a platform to raise pots up high where they get more light. For the past two years, I've put 3 to 6 plants of sweet corn in an oversized pot and grown them up there. The corn ears are about two-thirds full-size, but they're still sweet and yield a few meals... just for fun!

I remember reading about how native Americans raised beans and corn together, using the cornstalks as trellises. As a variant of that, I grow sugar snap peas around my tomatoes and let the peas climb the cages.

I've even tried growing sugar baby (small) watermelons up a trellis and supporting them with old panty hose hammocks. They didn't grow that well because of light issues, but they did grow, and if you have more light, this could work!

The practice of building vertically is something I picked up from square foot gardening, a popular way of gardening in urban and limited space gardens.

4) Trial and Error

I keep empty seed packages and flower tags on a small shelf in my garage, and note on them with a sharpie when each was planted. I try to note which ones didn't make it.

After a few years, I've started to get a handle of what works, what doesn't. Taking lots of digital photos also helps!

My Patio Garden Plan

My patio garden plan helped me make smart selections at the nursery!
My patio garden plan helped me make smart selections at the nursery! | Source

5) Mapping My Space!

This year, playing with my new iPad, I used a measuring tape and the SketchpadHD app to create a map of my garden.

I noted sun and shade areas on the map and any trees or plants I planned to keep. Then, armed with my iPad and a list of possible plants, I went to the garden center and planned each area with the plants available that day, even arranging pots on the ground so I could get an idea of bed layouts!

While buying plants, I noted them on my iPad sketch so I'd remember where they went when I got home. And now I've got a record so I can track which ones do well or poorly. It's a little anal, but every year, my garden should be a little better as I find solutions that work.

More Patio Garden Photos

Click thumbnail to view full-size
This side of the patio doesn't get much light, but enough that I need shade for sun protection. I can lower the umbrella when I leave to give more sun to plants. (Cape honeysuckle in back corner attracts hummingbirds.)Amending soil makes a HUGE difference. (I also use JOBE's tomato spikes.) Last year I didn't do enough, and my tomatoes got powdery mildew; this photo is from 2 years ago.There's the corn BEFORE I put it on the air conditioner. Jasmine trellis makes wonderful smelling blooms in Feb-March. Impatiens below (of course) since low light, or fuschias and bleeding hearts. I grew watermelon on trellis, but now mandevillas.Kitchen March 2012. It's looking a little bare since I just removed winter plants and replanted, but look at that lovely black dirt!Delphiniums, day lilies, nemesia (the white stuff) and lobelias in the flower bed (just replanted), thyme, oregano, sage, rosemary, chives in herb bed, and a dwarf babcock peach tree with LOTS of peaches in back corner.Hydrangea macrophylla ("Shooting Star") is a fun variant of a popular plant. Mine does pretty well in filtered light, although I think they prefer sun.In April, I planted edibles. Veggies get the sunny patch: many herbs, carrots, spinach, basil, squash, peas, corn, tomatoes, and radishes! (And strawberries and dwarf peaches.)
This side of the patio doesn't get much light, but enough that I need shade for sun protection. I can lower the umbrella when I leave to give more sun to plants. (Cape honeysuckle in back corner attracts hummingbirds.)
This side of the patio doesn't get much light, but enough that I need shade for sun protection. I can lower the umbrella when I leave to give more sun to plants. (Cape honeysuckle in back corner attracts hummingbirds.)
Amending soil makes a HUGE difference. (I also use JOBE's tomato spikes.) Last year I didn't do enough, and my tomatoes got powdery mildew; this photo is from 2 years ago.
Amending soil makes a HUGE difference. (I also use JOBE's tomato spikes.) Last year I didn't do enough, and my tomatoes got powdery mildew; this photo is from 2 years ago.
There's the corn BEFORE I put it on the air conditioner. Jasmine trellis makes wonderful smelling blooms in Feb-March. Impatiens below (of course) since low light, or fuschias and bleeding hearts. I grew watermelon on trellis, but now mandevillas.
There's the corn BEFORE I put it on the air conditioner. Jasmine trellis makes wonderful smelling blooms in Feb-March. Impatiens below (of course) since low light, or fuschias and bleeding hearts. I grew watermelon on trellis, but now mandevillas.
Kitchen March 2012. It's looking a little bare since I just removed winter plants and replanted, but look at that lovely black dirt!
Kitchen March 2012. It's looking a little bare since I just removed winter plants and replanted, but look at that lovely black dirt!
Delphiniums, day lilies, nemesia (the white stuff) and lobelias in the flower bed (just replanted), thyme, oregano, sage, rosemary, chives in herb bed, and a dwarf babcock peach tree with LOTS of peaches in back corner.
Delphiniums, day lilies, nemesia (the white stuff) and lobelias in the flower bed (just replanted), thyme, oregano, sage, rosemary, chives in herb bed, and a dwarf babcock peach tree with LOTS of peaches in back corner.
Hydrangea macrophylla ("Shooting Star") is a fun variant of a popular plant. Mine does pretty well in filtered light, although I think they prefer sun.
Hydrangea macrophylla ("Shooting Star") is a fun variant of a popular plant. Mine does pretty well in filtered light, although I think they prefer sun.
In April, I planted edibles. Veggies get the sunny patch: many herbs, carrots, spinach, basil, squash, peas, corn, tomatoes, and radishes! (And strawberries and dwarf peaches.)
In April, I planted edibles. Veggies get the sunny patch: many herbs, carrots, spinach, basil, squash, peas, corn, tomatoes, and radishes! (And strawberries and dwarf peaches.)

My Patio Garden Diary 2012

I continue to tweak and update the garden as things grow, bloom, and finish up: see my patio garden 2012 photo diary!

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    • Jason Marovich profile image

      Jason Marovich 5 years ago from United States

      If I may be so bold, this article should be displayed somewhere as an example of how to write an article online. The deftly personalized details make this patio garden design information relevant. Not to mention it's interesting. I had a small patio space similar to this years back, and what you've done with yours is beautiful.

    • Greekgeek profile image
      Author

      Ellen 5 years ago from California

      Great heavens. Thank you! I was afraid I'd spent too much time talking about my own garden to be helpful to someone planning one in a different space.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 5 years ago from Houston, Texas

      I also enjoyed learning how you went about amending the soil and deciding upon how much light each area received throughout the day. Obviously you are very detail oriented. The results show beautifully in your photos. You have created a mini paradise! Your cat likes it too! :) Voted up and beautiful.

    • Jools99 profile image

      Jools99 5 years ago from North-East UK

      Greekgeek, very interesting hub. I have one side of my garden which is shaded for most of the day so I have rather lazily just put in ground cover plants which can thrive there so if nothing else, it is nice and green all year around but I am going to seek out some shade loving flowering plants this Summer to enliven it a bit more. Voted up.

    • profile image

      summerberrie 5 years ago

      This is just beautiful. I love the strawberry pots and the cat video is great. All this work and planning just for him! It is neat how you incorporated so much in a small space-vegetables, flowers, and foliage. Nice plans. You certainly overcame your obstacles.

    • Greekgeek profile image
      Author

      Ellen 5 years ago from California

      Jools -- I'm lazy, too. It's mostly ferns and ground cover over there, although I've recently added Hydrangia, Calla lily, and something called kalichoe that seems to forgive zero light. It's taken me a few years to do much with the shady corner.

      summerberrie-- It's only half a joke that I bought this place for the cat. I was looking for something with a walled patio so she could enjoy going outside without wandering off (she's old enough that walls are an obstacle.)

    • profile image

      Janhorner 4 years ago

      Good Morning,

      Boy you worked so hard! I know how difficult this must have been because my husband use to be a landscape gardener and sometimes I would go and help him do clear outs before he started a job.

      The outcome is absolutely gorgeous and you have created a very relaxing place to sit and watch the world go by. Excellent article and loved the video.

      Jan

    • profile image

      Monica 3 years ago

      Where do I get a realistic picture of a westcovina patio design, ex. Concrete floor, brick walls in a condo pretty small

    • Greekgeek profile image
      Author

      Ellen 3 years ago from California

      I don't know -- try asking a garden center?

    • profile image

      senthia 2 years ago

      How do I keep tomato plants from out growing so large onmy small apartment patio?

    • Greekgeek profile image
      Author

      Ellen 2 years ago from California

      I'm afraid I haven't the faintest idea! I occasionally have to prune mine. Annoying, when they've got flowers or fruits on the ends, but they do grow back even if you chop them quite far down the vine!

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