Shallots can be used in place of onions for a milder flavor. They also keep much longer than onions.
Blackberries are delicious and very healthy for you. Learn how to grow, prune, and propagate your own plants.
Don't have a green space? You can grow a patio, balcony, or apartment vegetable garden with very little square footage. This article presents some easy ways to exercise your urban green thumb!
This article will explain exactly how to grow gorgeous, tasty bell peppers, which are low maintenance and easy to grow. No green thumb necessary.
If you are looking for a tree that is drought-resistant, while at the same time stunning to look at, you might want to think about a pomegranate tree. As you can see, they are a spectacle of beauty.
Make sure you include some companion plants for cucumbers to keep the pests away and the the best yield possible.
It is important that you transplant your tomato plants at the right time and that you follow the right process. This guide covers everything you need to know.
Do you see yellow or brown spots on the leaves? Are your cucumber plants wilting? Are they not producing as much fruit? Learn how to identify and treat common cucumber diseases.
When you grow vegetables organically it is sometimes a struggle to obtain and incorporate a sufficient amount of compost and other nutrient-rich organic matter into your soil to maintain its health and fertility. You must be diligent to "feed your...
Corn smut can ruin your corn crop or add variety to your dinner. Find out why they are both good and bad.
Don't miss out on your chance to grow carrots this year! With this complete guide, you'll learn the basics for how to grow carrots from seed.
How to forage for the most common edible wild plants in Zone 5. Identification and preparation tips included.
Abiu is an exotic fruit tree that grows in Hawaii. The bright yellow fruit has a delicate, creamy, sweet taste, with a strong hint of caramel and vanilla.
Rosehips are packed with vitamin C--and they're delicious in teas, jams, jellies and other sweet treats.
An illustrated guide to growing eight favorite perennial herbs. These common essential culinary herbs will grow year after year, giving you a fresh supply of herbs for your kitchen.
Grow your own quinoa as a grain substitute and excellent source of protein for vegetarian and vegan diets.
Growing organic peppers is easy if you know how. Learn how to plant them, care for them, and harvest them.
Tomatillos are easy to grow and are resistant to many pests and diseases. This fruit is extremely nutritious and is the main ingredient in salsa verde. Learn how to grow and prepare tomatillos.
One of the easiest ways to grow green onions is growing them from the ones you buy at the local grocery store. Green onions may be grown year round for your favorite recipe.
The successful germination of tomato seeds requires the right temperatures and soil conditions. This guide covers it all, right from seed selection to taking care of the young seedlings.
I have been gardening a few years, and this year I have decided to give Straw Bale Gardening a try. Follow my adventures and possible missteps.
The Piri piri pepper, also called the African red devil pepper, is a very spicy African pepper that can grow in small containers and under most types of desk lamps. Its an easy and fun way to grow peppers just about anywhere, especially indoors. ...
Enjoy fresh and healthy vegetables from your own backyard by following these ten tips for growing an organic vegetable garden.
Fresh vegetables not only taste better but are also much better for you. These are what I consider to be the 5 best vegetables to plant in your garden to eat healthier and save money on your grocery bill all year round.
Container gardening with broccoli is a great way to provide yourself with fresh produce. Learn the basics of growing broccoli in containers.
Learn everything you need to know to grow a big pumpkin. Learn which variety of seeds works best, how to plant indoors and in the garden, and tips to growing a really big pumpkin.
Mountain apple is a beautiful fruit tree that grows in many gardens and farms in Hawaii. It has a unique rose flavor, tastes sweet and extremely juicy. Mountain apples are usually eaten fresh or made into jams, pickles, and wines.
Need a unique addition to your patio garden? Well then, consider growing olive trees in containers! These hardy trees are perfect for small spaces, and will grow for many years to come.
There is no reason people new to gardening can't add a few of these amazing varieties into the mix! Come learn about a few excellent options!
The cost of starting a raised-bed garden can be offset in one season with the food that's grown. Growing your own organic food can have a big impact on money savings.
You can plant vegetables in the cold months of fall and winter. Use the following table to see which plants tolerate the harshness of frosty and freezing weather.
You don't need much to grow potatoes. Using the right method, even the most novice of gardeners can produce a great potato crop.
Daikon radishes are large, mildly favored radishes that can be eaten raw, cooked or pickled. They are as easy to grow as their smaller, red cousins.
Banana plants, sometimes called banana trees, have become a popular plant to pass around between friends in areas with cool climates. Here's how to care for and overwinter these tropical plants.
I am growing saffron, the most expensive spice in the world, in my yard. Give this exotic a try and see what it can do in your kitchen.
Important differences between the plantain tree and the banana, as well as eating suggestions, cultivation information and how the plant produces fruit. Serving suggestions for the fruit are given at the end of the article based on my experience in Costa Rica.
The term weed is sometimes used arbitrarily. Wild onion grass is considered a weed but is edible and tasty. It can be grown and used as food. If you wish to control it, it has unique characteristics that must be considered first.
A great way to grow potatoes in small spaces. Try growing potatoes in containers to save space and grow in an environment that's easy to maintain.
Want to grow some of your own vegetables but don't know where to start? Check out these 7 easy to grow vegetables that are perfect for newbie gardeners.
Though they require a little patience and care, it’s by no means impossible to grow asparagus in containers. I show you how here.
Romaine Lettuce is one of those vegetables that is easy to regrow from cuttings. Just one bunch of lettuce, some soil, and this leafy green can be added to the garden with hardly any fuss.
There’s nothing quite like pulling a ripe peach off your own tree, washing it up, and taking a bite…tasty! Juicy, tart, sweet, and tangy peaches grow on trees in Ohio orchards and fruit groves—but you can also cultivate them in your own backyard.
How to grow rhubarb plants in the garden or in pots. All you need to know about planting, growing, and harvesting rhubarb. How to take care of a rhubarb plant. How deep do you plant the crowns of rhubarb plants.
Arugula is a flavorful, nutritious vegetable. I have this easy growing plant in my garden and want to share a few growing tips, plus my favorite Arugula Salad recipe.
Container gardening is all about making the most out of very little. Growing peas in containers brings this statement to life! You can grow and harvest them before your summer crops are even planted!
Watching your pepper plants bloom but fail to set fruit can be extremely frustrating! Learn the causes and cures for pepper plant blossom drop.
A general guide for beginners, "How to Grow Herbs Easily" includes the ABCs of raising & harvesting herbs at home. Includes basic information on light, water, soil & pest control.
Growing San Marzano tomato plants is a great way to get the most out of your garden. Producing an endless supply of tasty tomatoes, this is one variety you won't want to miss!
Cabbages are a cool season crop that comes in different sizes and colors. It's easy to find one that suits your needs and your garden size.
Grow all the vegetables and herbs needed for the best fresh and canned spaghetti sauce. Know where your food comes from and what's really in it. Start with this pasta sauce.
Egyptian Onions, also known as Top Onions, grow sets instead of flowers, at the top of the stem. Planted in the fall, the onions are ready for use before most of the garden can be planted. Nice sized bulbs add pleasant flavor to dishes, cooked or...
This guide will show you how to plant, grow and harvest spring onions, also known as scallions or green onions. I also provide some recipes for coleslaw and potato salad, so that you can make some tasty side dishes with your own freshly grown vegetables.
Water tomato plants a little away from the stem to encourage the plant to spread its roots. Learn some of the best watering techniques from someone who has been growing tomatoes for years. These tips and guidelines would take you a long way. Read on and you could become an expert yourself!
No autumn decor is complete without colorful ornamental gourds. Here's how to grow them and dry them.
Learn everything about heirloom tomatoes: the coining of the term to the science and genetics, the differences between heirloom and hybrid tomatoes and more.
How long does it take to grow sweet peppers from seed? When can you plant pepper plants outside? This guide will reveal all you need to know to grow and care for sweet bell peppers.
The winter months can be difficult for a garden, but there are some vegetables that thrive in the wintry season.
Here are some gardening tips for planting, growing and harvesting runner beans successfully, including how to make a cane wigwam to support the plants as they grow. I tell you how long it takes for runner beans to grow from seed.
If you ever thought about how to grow your own fruit tree in Arizona and what the best gardening ideas are for an apricot tree in particular, then look no further.
Here you will learn some new tricks to grow big tomato plants that produce lots of fruit. The added benefit is lots of tomatoes to eat fresh or can and freeze.
Growing Herbs in Pots is one of the most enjoyable and easiest technique to grow an herb garden that even a novice gardener can do. In this hub, I've listed some of the Top Five Best Tips I've learned about herb container gardening. These...
Vanilla Strawberry Hydrangeas display giant pink- and cream-colored blossoms in late summer that fade to red as the weather cools. Learn how to plant and care for these beautiful bushes.
Planting and growing your own strawberries is rather labor intensive in the beginning, but once established, they are easy to maintain. This article will help you through the process.
Beware of the pesky Parthenocissus Quinguefolia. If there is a space large enough under your home for a plant with a name that length to slither into, it will take over your life.
Swiss chard is a hearty vegetable that is not only healthy for you, but a great addition to any vegetable garden. Learn how to plant, maintain, harvest and troubleshoot Swiss chard.
To give tomato plants proper support, maximize sun exposure, reduce plant disease and keep fruit off the soil, a tomato trellis is a great option. You can make your own tomato trellis using supplies from a home improvement store. Here is a list of supplies and instructions for how to build your own trellis for $20 or less.
Tomato plants are one of the easiest plants to grow, but knowing a few tips and tricks can guarantee that you grow the biggest and tastiest tomatoes in your neighborhood.
How do you grow peas from seed. I explain how long it takes for pea seeds to germinate and how far apart you need to plant them. It is easier to pick the pods if you plant them around a homemade trellis.
Potatoes are so very easy to grow, and you don't need a lot of space. All you need is a container, some seed potatoes, and some soil.
How to grow strawberries in pots and containers from seeds. Gardening tips for planting, growing and harvesting strawberry plants. You can grow new strawberry plants from runners for next year. Step-by-step instructions. I have included Jam recipes.
Learn the health benefits of the amazing loquat fruit. This article will tell you how much antioxidants and vitamins are in this sweet fruit.
Dedicated to the common edible weeds that I find around me in the urban neighborhoods of the greater Los Angeles area.
Every vegetable relies on water to grow to its full potential, but too much or too little water can have a significant impact on the overall health of your plant and your total harvest.
Few experiences can match the pleasure of savoring a homegrown vegetable, especially if you raised it yourself from seedling or seed. Here are some tips for the new, beginner gardener!
Corn found in the market is typically yellow or white, with the exception of ornamental corn sold in the fall for decorating. It may be surprising to discover that corn varieties come in all colors. Check out this informational guide on the amazing glass gem corn!
Strawberries are one of the fruits most frequently grown in home gardens. Some commonly advised techniques, however, can cause mushy strawberries. There are ways to prevent this from happening.
Wi apple is a tropical fruit tree that grows in Hawaii. The small, oval-shaped fruits have a wonderful mango-pineapple taste and contain a rather scary looking seed!
When moved to a new pot or plot, a strawberry plant can be very forgiving. But do it wrong and even the hardiest plant might wilt and die. Here's how to do it right.
Tomatoes are one of the easiest plants to successfully take cuttings from. This article explains how to take stem tip cuttings from your tomato plants to multiply the number of tomato plants you have.
How to grow cabbage from seeds in the garden. Gardening tips for planting, growing and harvesting cabbage successfully. It grows very well in cool weather. The seeds germinate quickly and are easy to transplant.
How to grow and take care of tomato plants from seed to harvest in the garden. How much space and sun do tomatoes need to grow successfully? How much water should you give a tomato plant? Step-by-step instructions for planting, growing and harvesting tomatoes from seed.
This guide will show you how to plant, grow, and harvest horseradish. It will also provide information about home remedies and recipes for making horseradish sauce and relish.
Cowpea leaves and its young pods can be used to make vegetable dishes. Learn how to grow cowpeas (black-eyed peas) as a vegetable in a garden or containers, and see how to get more nutritious leaves.
You get a bag of onions, or some fresh whole garlic, and a week or two later, you notice that one or two (or all) of them have put out roots and shoots. Don't toss them—turn them into new plants!
Nothing is more satisfying than growing a fruit tree that bears four different kinds of fruits. Plums, peaches, apricots, and nectarines make a healthy harvest when these are ready to be eaten.
Cilantro is really easy to grow, fast and not requiring a lot of work, plus it is a good companion to tomatoes, peppers and other herbs as well. So, if you like cilantro, growing it in your garden is definitely worth your time.
Bananas are produced in tall plants, which are often mistaken as trees. The uses of banana trees or different parts of the plants are numerous. In fact, all the parts of a banana plant are useful.
Jalapenos peppers are a festive and bountiful addition to any container garden. Learn how to grow jalapenos in containers today!
Asparagus beans are heirloom, very vigorous climbing vines that are easy to grow. I grew these for the first time this year. Here are my results.
As the weather gets cooler, ornamental cabbage and kale are leafy plants that produce bright foliage that gets more intense the colder it becomes. Both plants are close relatives to several vegetables, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, turnips, and mustard greens.
A guide to planting, growing and harvesting carrots from seeds in pots and containers your garden. How long does it take for carrots to grow from seed? How long does it take for a carrot seed to germinate? Carrot Juice recipe
You can bring herbs indoors for the winter, whether in their live forms or as preserved herbal essences. Learn to know your herbs and their requirements in order to have their bounty with you throughout the winter.
Sweet potatoes don’t actually grow from seed but rather a slip, or sprout, that forms off of old sweet potatoes. There are a few ways of growing the slips.
Presenting a selection of fast growing hedge trees with details about the best conditions in which the tree will flourish and form a great hedge.
Strawberries are a versatile, easy to grow berry. They grow well in containers, in gardens, as edging plants or even in hanging baskets.
How I grew organic peas in my garden and saved the world. Well, not the whole world, but my bunny's world.
It's easy to harvest and dry your own lavender. This article explains how to cut and dry lavender, when to do it, and how to store it.
Surinam cherry is not native to Hawaii, but it is a versatile tropical fruit with an eye-catching shape and delightful taste.
The Indian corn that we use for our fall decorations has been used for more than decorations throughout its long history.
Do you love strawberries? It is not a difficult plant to grow, and it can live happily in small gardens, window boxes, and pots as long as you have sunlight and water available. Give it a try!
The medlar (Mespilus) belongs to the Rosaceae family. There are two species: the common medlar (Mespilus germanica) and Stern's Medlar (Mespilus canescens). They are pretty, small trees with beautiful flowers and tasty fruit. Learn about medlars and all the great things you can make with them.
How to grow and harvest Orange Tendersweet Watermelon from seed. This watermelon has a pale orange flesh and a crisp, light flavor.
Want to try growing your own vegetables and fruit but don't know where to begin? Backyard or micro-farming is easier than you think and has incredible benefits.
To get a green bell pepper to turn red, be prepared to shop carefully and be patient. If you do, red peppers will abound.
Walks through through the countryside with a basket for wild blackberries and strawberries are fantastic to imagine, but unrealistic for most urban-dwellers. Today, a growing community of urban foragers is finding food in the most seemingly food-bare environments. Learn about urban foraging, and some of the most common edible, urban plants.
Don't let another season pass without growing mint in your garden! This guide will show you how to care for these versatile plants.
Looking to get the most out of your small space or container garden? Well then, it's time to try growing Pequin Peppers! Even in tight spaces, these pepper plants are always high yielding.
This guide shows you how to care for olive trees through the seasons. An annual cycle chart shows which months the work gets done.
This is one heirloom cucumber that you won't forget. Mouse melon vines produce ample amounts of delicious tiny fruits. In this article, explore how to grow mouse melons.
Add a little flare to your container garden by growing garlic! This easy to grow root crop can be planted densely for abundant harvests. Come learn how to grow garlic in a pot!
Rose-Scented Geraniums are one of the more useful herbs in the garden - make a relaxing herbal tea or use the leaves to delicately scent and nourish wood and to keep insects at bay.
There has been much publicity about our important honey bee, and how they are badly needed to pollinate our crops. But if the bees have passed you by, here is another alternative for your cucumbers.
This article will provide tips on pruning raspberries properly for growing more fruit every season. This guide will also offer helpful advice on general care for these wonderful plants.
How long does it take for a lettuce seed to germinate? Instructions for planting, growing and harvesting lettuce in a small garden. I show you how much sun and water the lettuce plant needs to grow. How to grow lettuce seeds in pots and containers
How do pineapples grow? Learn how easy it is to plant this nutritionally rich fruit and enjoy the health benefits of pineapple. You can even do pineapple planting in a pot and have them indoors.
Micro greens are nutritious, easy to grow, and can be a lucrative urban farming business endeavor. GroAction is a one-man operation that grows and sells micro greens to restaurants in Portland, Oregon.
Herb seedlings can be purchased, but it is much more economical to start your own herb garden from seed.
Learn expert tips for growing cucumbers in your vegetable garden, including what soil to use and how to deal with common pests. The cucumber plant is a relatively easy plant to grow.
Lablab purpureus or Hyacinth Bean is a beautiful, easy to grow edible vine. It grows in most climates and provides a quick and attractive screen with its lavender flowers and purple beans and stems. You'll find information about how to grow and eat Hyacinth Bean.
While in other places you would plant potatoes as early as February or March, here in the desert foothills, June is a good month to start. Learn this and more about growing potatoes.
Building your own Strawberry farm with Recycle plastic bottles. I decided on strawberry farm because I love their versatility. You don't have to be a professional to complete this project.
Love watermelon but hate the seeds? Follow these five tips to grow seedless watermelons in your home garden successfully.
A guide to using companion plants in your vegetable garden as a natural way to keep away harmful pests and diseases and improve your crops. Includes charts of vegetables, herbs and flower companion planting combinations.
If you're wondering how you'll know when bananas are ready to pick, here are photos to showing the various stages. An attentive eye and patience are required to pick your bananas at the perfect time
For those who live in a home such as an apartment with no access to a yard, having a vegetable garden can be tricky. Here is how to easily grow large tomatoes in planters on your own porch!
Saving pumpkin seeds is extremely simple. Learn how to easily save pumpkin seeds for planting or simply to roast for a snack.
Tomatoes are easy to grow and taste delicious picked fresh from the garden. Here is a guide to planting, growing, fertilizing and harvesting tomatoes.
Edamame is a type of soy bean that is harvested before it is ripe. The beans are an important source of nutrients for vegans.
Yes! it is possible to grow hops in Florida (zone 9b) for brewing beer. Here is how I managed it, as well as some lessons learned.
How to grow an avocado plant from the big seed at the center of the fruit is to clean and dry the seed, then plant it directly into a compost-filled pot. Place it rounded-side down, and wait and watch for signs of germination.
Gardening tips for planting, growing and harvesting cucumbers successfully from seeds in your garden in containers and pots. I explain how much space a cucumber plant needs to grow.
If you love garden edibles, take a look at white strawberries. These are a fun, non-invasive fruit that is ever-bearing and easy to grow!
Get all the information you need to grow butternut squash. Learn how to store the butternut squash properly so you can enjoy eating them way into April.
Sweet basil is the tastiest and most popular garden herb around! Come learn the basics of how to care for sweet basil plants.
Growing your own vegetables has many advantages. The produce is much fresher and cheaper than anything that can be bought in the shops. It's enjoyable to do, and if you use pots and containers to grow your vegetables in, you don't need a lot of space. Follow these handy tips and advice and you too can successfully grow your own vegetables.
The Narcissus family contains flowers that are variously called daffodils, narcissus and even jonquils.
If you are looking to make the most of your yard by growing food even in the shadiest areas, here are some ideas, techniques, and alternatives.
Growing French tarragon in the home garden. How to pick a planting location, how to plant and care for French tarragon.
Blossom end rot is a common problem, especially in tomatoes. Prevent it from happening in your garden by properly amending your soil to ensure the correct amount of calcium and making sure that your garden is watered consistently throughout the growing season.
This article explains how to grow onions step by step, how to cultivate and harvest onions. They are easy to grow, require little maintenance and have a great flavour.
Cooking and eating ampalaya that was grown in your own garden is a truly gratifying experience. This article will show you how to plant and care for ampalaya (without pesticides), as well as provide you with some easy recipes for cooking up the bitter, delicious gourd!
Growing plants in the city isn’t as impossible as you might think. There are plenty of fruit and vegetables that can thrive in an indoor environment or on your balcony. Here are ten fruits and vegetables you can grow in your apartment.
There is a big difference between that green paste that comes with your sushi and freshly grated wasabi. Read on to find out why.
Find out how to grow healthy and abundant cucumbers, to process them for eating, and get maximum health benefits.
Sometimes a late frost can threaten your prized tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant. Learn how to protect them from getting zapped.
Pruning fruit and ornamental trees in Ohio's ever-changing climate helps bring about strong healthy flowers, fruits and nuts.
Learn everything you need to know about planting, growing, and harvesting onions in a small garden. I explain when to plant onions and how long it takes them to grow and how to take care of these vegetables.
For gardeners and permaculturists, edible landscaping is a wonderful way to bring productivity into a space that is often purely ornamental. Now it can be both!
Peanut butter fruit is an attractive tropical plant that grows in gardens in Hawaii. They oddly have the taste and texture of peanut butter!
Many people grow pumpkins and gourds in hills, it's been the preferred method for centuries. However, I have found that planting in rows can be much more beneficial. Learn how to grow more pumpkins.
Everyone's always looking for the next great thing, and Glass Gem corn is it! Learn how to grow, harvest, dry, and cook this beautiful corn at home..
Use kitchen scraps to grow plants! Yes a lot of foods you disregard as not edible and/or trash can in fact grow into a plant and give you more fruits and vegetables! It is an alternative way of growing a vegetable garden then growing from seed or buying a bunch of plants.
Growing fruits, vegetables, and herbs for consumption is one of my favorite gardening activities. Being able to enjoy a harvest that I grew myself is a rewarding way to indulge in my hard work.
If you love the idea of growing your own apple tree but don’t have a lot of space, consider growing a dwarf. Dwarf trees typically grow between 8 to 10 feet tall. They are ideal for growing outside in the soil or in a container.
Build a pumpkin trellis that is strong. light weight, and moveable between garden beds and between planting seasons.
This simple guide will help you grow tomatoes, how to care for them, and what to look for. It just may be easier than you've been wondering!
Growing a vegetable garden is not as difficult a thing as many people make it out to be. My husband and I have grown a garden every year for the last 25 years. Here are some tips for growing your own vegetable garden.
Did you know that there are two main types of tomatoes? In this article, learn the differences of Indeterminate vs Determinate tomato varieties.
Below is a list of trees that will grow in zone 8b (USDA Hardiness 15 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit, Austin, TX to Gainesville, FL). I've put together this list for those interested in beginning to research an orchard or fruit tree grove. I've included general characteristics about the tree, harvest time, height, and hardiness zones. Additionally, I've included latin names for all varieties to make further research easier.
Everyone wants to save money where they can, right? The cost of groceries is usually a big one, especially if you enjoy cooking at home more than eating out. There are a handful of vegetables that you can buy from the store and regrow at home, and even save yourself some money.
Vertical gardening is a great way to maximize the use of a small space. You can grow everything from pole beans and tomatoes to larger plants like potatoes and pumpkins. This guide will show you how.
Get a jump on the growing season and add nitrogen to your garden by planting peas, a cool season crop.
Have you ever wondered which common edible wild plants are safe to eat? If you do learn about them, you'll never have to worry about being hungry again. Here's an introduction to Common American Wild Plants.
Even northern gardeners can enjoy fresh citrus year-round by growing a Meyer lemon tree in a container.
Looking for something new to grow in your container garden this season? Why not give eggplants a try! Learn how to grow eggplants in containers and discover the variety of fruits to be had!
Tomato flowers are self-pollinating, with a little help from mother nature. If that fails, you can give your tomato plants a helping hand.
Though pepper plants are most likely not going to survive if the temperature drops too low, they might still be salvageable. Try some of these techniques for keeping very tender plants like peppers warm when the mercury dips below 50 degrees.
How do you plant, grow and harvest potatoes in a bag. Gardening tips for growing potatoes. What month do you plant potatoes? How do you know when your potatoes are ready to harvest?
How to get seeds from the pod, sow, grow and take care of a superb green chili pepper plant in a container. For people with small gardens who love fresh vegetables.
Growing leafy vegetables indoors under an artifical light is a good way to keep your gardening hobby going during icy winters.
How to grow goji berry tree in your garden. How long it takes to grow goji berries from seed or young plants. What are the health benefits of goji berries. Step-by-step instructions with videos and pictures
Common question: "What fruit trees grow in Arizona." A peach tree in Arizona is a wonderful addition. Beautiful peach green leaves and their pink blossoms in spring are nothing less than spectacular.
In nature, tomatoes naturally vine among the forest floor, but in modern gardening, most varieties need support. Here's several of the options available for keeping your tomatoes off the ground.