Rae gardens in the Pacific Northwest and has experience with cultivating moss in a variety of methods.
Welcome to the Plush World of Moss Farming!
Moss can be a filler on top of a potted plant, a little accent in a garden, or a lush, full-fledged replacement for a lawn. To some, it is a creeping green scourge that starts in damp corners and crawls across your lawn or roof.
But to others who see things with greener eyes, moss is a delightful, visual, and tactile experience, a self-trimming substitute for unruly grasses, and a lovely addition to the shady parts of your backyard.
This is the first volume of my online moss farming notebook, complete with pictures along the way. It's got a lot of fantastic moss information for beginning moss farmers. When you get to the end of this collection, there's a link to "volume two."
Moss Farming: Rocky Beginnings
In the spring of 2005, I was on a road trip with a friend in Nevada. Suffice to say, we came home joking about opening a roadside rest stop/moss farm. You could get moss spa treatments and all that jazz. Guess we got a little spazzy driving the Extraterrestrial Highway.
In Dec 2005, I moved to Seattle, where moss tends to grow on just about anything left outside eventually. I have a basement room in my house, with a light well at the window. It's not too much of a view. I decided that I would moss farm in the light well, with the goal of having a moss carpet cover the bottom.
What you see here is the light well as it appears when you stand looking down into it from the backyard. My bedroom window is all along the top edge of this photo. I also decided to put a little goddess shrine in the well. Can't you just see her sitting in contemplation of a lovely green carpet of moss?
How to Grow Moss (5 Methods)
If you are interested in cultivating moss, there are a variety of ways to do it. They are listed here in order of increasing complexity and effort.
- Nature: You just let the moss do its thing where and when it wants. Most often gardeners who use this method weed around the moss to remove other plants that grow in it.
- Scattering spores: This is just a step more complex than nature, but still doesn't take much effort. Spores are most often bought from nurseries or garden supply houses.
- Seeding with moss bits: This is one of those methods that involves a blender, some moss, and a beer. This is the info most often found on the internet.
- Transplanting moss: Sometimes you can find or buy moss and then transplant it to where you want it to grow. This can involve harvesting from nature, or ordering from specialty moss suppliers.
- Cultivating moss: You can purposely set up an area or use flats to grow your own moss sod and then transplant that in sheets to the area where you want it to finally reside.
Adventure #1: Seeding With Beer/Moss Mixture
This is that beer and blender moss thing people talk about.
I decided in early February to get some sort of moss seeding going in the light well. Although it is on the north side of the house, and thus is well shaded and retains moisture when we have rain, I didn't think the purely natural method would be very satisfying... lol...
A lot of websites on the net talk about making a moss/beer slurry and then spreading it where you want moss to grow. As most of the moss in the yard was really thick, lush, and popping, I figured it was a good time to help spread the green fuzzy love.
I took some nice bits from our front steps and broke it up into the blender with some beer and a bit of sugar, just some recipe I found on about a hundred websites. That's it here in the picture. It sorta foamed up and I tried to mix it to be "creamy" as suggested.
Then I took it outside and smeared it all over some bricks in the well and some of the metal surfaces too, to just see if the moss takes.
A few days after I did that, we entered a period of intense and heavy rain and it really seemed to just wash everything away. Ok, so that's how that method ended up.....
Adventure #2: Some Better Moss Advice
The gardener gets more serious.
In March I had the opportunity to take a day trip down to Portland from Seattle and one of the featured stops was an amazing bookstore called Powell's.
I was selling some used books and decided that I could have just one or two new-to-me books. In the garden section, I found a copy of Moss Gardening by George Schenck. This is considered to be THE moss Bible for gardeners. Schenck lived in Vancouver, BC, Canada, and was a landscape gardener.
It's a fantastic book and I quickly realized this was going to be one of my best resources. The thing I found the most interesting was that Schenck said that moss doesn't even need dirt. It wants an acidic surface that it can grow over.
I realized that was what all those recipes involving beer or smearing yogurt on pots were about. Those both raise the surface acidity, which encourages the moss. The book said he'd tried those methods, along with commercial solutions for adjusting the Ph of your soil, but what he liked to use best was powdered instant milk.
I went to the pantry, and sure enough, we had some. So, I scattered a dusting of it on the rocks and surfaces in my light well.
Moss Gardening by George Schenck
Adventure #3: A Moss Crazy Quilt
The idea takes a more definitive shape.
During the month of April, I began to harvest moss from our own backyard as well as the neighborhood. If I was taking a walk and came across a really good patch of moss that was in total public space, I'd take a chunk of it. I was limited by what I could carry in both hands.
Some pots in the yard had good layers of moss across the soil surfaces, and I reclaimed those moss layers as my sister's spring seedlings slowly matured and were potted up and moved outside. All the bits I collected were put down on the rock bottom of the light well.
The idea is to form a moss colony, a sort of Victorian crazy quilt of moss. Each chunk is kept with similar mosses so that they form larger colonies and knit together.
For Earth Day weekend in April, I traveled to a private retreat in CA called Gaia's Oasis. They had been having record rain, and the mosses on the land were thick and lush. All over the property, there are large boulders with mixed moss colonies on them.
The picture above is of just such a rock. You can tell the different mosses apart by their color and varying degrees of dryness. I hope to have a blend of compatible mosses for my carpet eventually.
Adventure #4: Mobile Moss
April showers bring May mosses.
This is a great little growth of moss. It's on an aging blue truck, driven by my friend Calyxa who lives in Sunnyvale, CA. She'd mentioned this happening before, and this year, all those record rains in April sure did a great job of reviving this unusual growth of moss.
This is a juncture alongside the door frame on my friend's truck. The moss just started there itself one year and when there's enough rain, it revives and becomes verdant. I just recently was passing through the Bay Area and got to see the mossy clump for myself and take this picture.
It's growing at a spot where the paint is a bit worn on the truck's surface. The exposed metal would be a bit acidic from wear, and it's that slight acidity that moss really likes.
Rocks get acidic when their surfaces wear down, especially from rain, and so, you might say this moss has just attached itself to a modern, suburban rock.
Adventure #5: Growing Pots of Moss
Mosses tend to just rest in summer weather.
Most often, summer just isn't a time for moss. It's just too dry and sunny. I'm still reading Schenck's moss book. He pointed out that moss is used to a cycle of wet and dry, and some new moss growers will mistakenly think that dry moss is unhealthy moss and try to keep watering it to keep it green.
Whatever your moss does in the summer is what it is supposed to do, so don't panic if it's dry and turns reddish or brown. Trying to keep it constantly wet if it isn't used to it can be unhealthy for your moss. Here in Seattle, we get rain on and off over the summer, so I'm not expecting my moss to dry out completely.
Here's a chunk relocated from a sidewalk in my neighborhood. It peeled up from the concrete in one nice little sheet, and I carried it home. Some moss I've laid on the rocks on the bottom of the light well, but since this one was so fluffy and lovely, I decided to put it into a shallow bonsai pot that was laying around.
The pot has some sandy/rocky dirt in it, which helps retain a bit of water and props up the moss. It's been doing great. This pot is sitting on the cinder block, just above the goddess' head.
When we have a week without rain, it starts to get red-brown and with prolonged dryness, the moss will contract and get denser, and browner. However, even a light sprinkle can bring it back from that to what you see here.
Adventure #6: Weeding, Critters, and Summer
Dog days of summer.
The picture here shows a large pot that was full of moss back in the spring. Actually, it still is full of moss, it's just now it's August and not April.
Most of the moss is in the brown and dried summer state. I've also got tiny weeds coming up. Pulling these weeds is the "rice picking" I was referring to as I wind up pinching out teeny, new shoots with two fingers. The weeds are a combo of stuff that was planted in the planter before I decided to let it just go to moss, and seeds, and volunteers you get from wind and birds.
Speaking of critters, notice how the moss is all chunked up and torn a bit? That's due to the ravages of squirrels. They see a moss carpet and think "huh, I wonder if I left anything buried there?" and they tear up big pieces or dig holes. I've come out some mornings and found huge areas just utterly turned over and shredded.
Since this is summer and a first experiment, I'm not going to net the pot now, but in the fall, when it gets wetter and the moss reasserts itself, I just might do that to keep the moss rooted and protected.
Adventure #7: The Rebirth of Moss
Mosses "wake up" in the fall.
Take a good look at the picture in the module titled "Weeding and Critters" and then take another look at this picture.
Can you believe it's the same pot of moss? It's true and the pictures are only about a month apart. W&C's picture was taken in early August and this picture was taken in early September.
I haven't really done anything differently, but we've had a slight change in temperature and the days are a tad shorter now that we're moving into fall, and obviously, the moss knows this!
I've usually got one or two very deep squirrel holes to replace/repair nearly every morning. I think I'm going to try to hang in there until the end of the month and then do The Great Moss Transplant down to the light well.
Adventure #8: Moss in the Hole!
The Great Equinox Moss Migration of '06.
It's official! I've got moss growing down in the bottom of my light well! Or more accurately, I'm now working to keep the moss in the light well alive and thriving.
I decided to mark the Autumnal Equinox by migrating a lot of the moss I was cultivating in pots down into the actual light well space. The rains are just starting back up for the winter and a lot of my moss stock seemed healthy and robust enough to do it.
The picture here shows the light well, looking down from the level of the yard. I clustered the moss up at the end of the well that I don't use to climb down into the space, so that I still have rocks to step on. A lot of the spiders and bugs in the well liked this end too, so I figured it was the best place to start laying out the moss.
There are a couple of kinds of moss and I'll just have to wait and see if they all establish themselves or if one variety seems to dominate over the others.
When I lifted the moss out of their pots, I left whatever dirt clung to the underside and just laid the bits down on the rocky bottom of the space. I water it every other day when we haven't had rain which is supposed to help it get established. Last year, the green plushy moss stayed bright and fluffy until April or May, so I'm hoping I'll have this level of greenery all winter.
It's nice to look out my bedroom window and see this project coming together. I figure I'll climb in there and weed once a month during winter. So far, the squirrels have left it alone. I'm letting the big pot I was using as a cultivation space get mossy again, so I may have some more moss ready to transplant during the winter or in early spring depending on how fast it grows back.
Adventure #9: The Great Drenching of Ought-Six!
So, at the end of September, I transplanted all that moss down into the light well. October was brisk and sunny. And then in November, Seattle set a new record for rain in a one-month time period. In November 2006, there was 15.59" of rain in whatever it is they officially call the Seattle area.
This had little effect on my moss, or if it did, it was just to help it along. The dropping of temps has pretty much stopped any weed growth in the moss, as it's just too cold for the grasses and clovers so I haven't had to care for it at all.
I'm pretty sure the rain actually helped it get established. Almost all of it is showing new growth as we round out the end of the year.
Adventure #10: On to More Moss Farming in the Future
The soft green saga continues... slowly but mossily.
So that this doesn't become the never-ending lens (which would be a project unto itself), this lens covers only my beginning adventures with moss.
Please follow along as I continue to expand the mossy carpet in my light well throughout with moss gardening adventures. You can see how the moss continues to expand and see how backyard critters love (and wreck) moss from time to time.
If you've got a question or comment, you can do so below.
Thanks for visiting!
- 41 Outstanding Moss Craft Ideas
Learn to make outstanding crafts using sphagnum, Spanish, reindeer, artificial or excelsior moss. These 40+ crafts include trees, balls, baskets, wreaths, and frames.
- How to Grow Moss
The green color mosses produce is so vibrant and brings “life” to a garden. Here is some information about what moss is, how to grow it, where you can find moss, and how to start your own moss garden.
- How to Create a Moss Garden
Many people spend a lot of time and effort trying to get rid of the moss in their gardens. And despite all the effort, it often brings poor results because it's a fight against nature. Stop that and nurture the moss instead!
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
Share Your Green, Fuzzy Thoughts!
mathews perielathu on August 14, 2020:
Very encouraging. Can we farm mosses in between trees in tropical country. I wish I could use mosses to produce potting mixtures
Stacy Foster on January 13, 2016:
Fantastic! The best moss info on the web without a doubt. Thank you.
Paula Hite from Virginia on May 23, 2014:
What a Fabulous idea! I shared your lens on our G+ page today!
Rae Schwarz (author) from Seattle, WA on November 06, 2013:
@jmchaconne: Be sure to make your mixture really thick for sticking to vertical surfaces! It can take more than one attempt to get the moss really growing.
jmchaconne on November 06, 2013:
What a great lens! I'm building a small water feature with several falls. streams and pools, one of the streams and a pool is inside a cave like environment with little light. Your seeding with a beer/moss mix is a perfect solution to moss cover the interior walls and ceiling! Thank you for the useful information,
May Matthew on April 28, 2013:
Thank you for this great lens of useful information and nice pictures! I would like to grow moss.
EmmaCooper LM on March 05, 2013:
Cool lens - Blessed by a SquidAngel :)
StrongMay on March 05, 2013:
Fascinating idea - growing moss. I love the fuzzyness of it when I come across it along creeks.
Kathryn Grace from San Francisco on February 07, 2013:
I love, love, love this! Your verdigris Goddess is especially beautiful. I've growing all kinds of things on my northern-facing windowsills. I wonder if I could grow mosses indoors here in San Francisco. May give that a try.
debra-cornelius on February 07, 2013:
Moss gardening...whoda thunk it? ;) Seriously - Fun! Even started a new board on my Pinterest to highlight gardening tips and ideas now that you have me started!!!! ... ;)
suepogson on January 19, 2013:
What a great idea!
ismeedee on December 27, 2012:
I love moss- the way it looks and feels. Unfortunately so does our kitten who keeps picking bits of it up and bringing into the house making such a mess! Haha!
Shannon Williams from Davisville, WV on December 18, 2012:
What a great read! I have always loved moss, but it never occurred to me that you could grow it on purpose! LOL
jenny-archer-9 on November 24, 2012:
great if it,s not in the lawn
Rose Jones on November 17, 2012:
Really fun, pinned onto my "how does your garden grow" board.
Rae Schwarz (author) from Seattle, WA on October 15, 2012:
@traktorji: Moss is so fun. Our fall rains have just started and I'm looking forward to seeing the moss green up again after the summer.
traktorji on October 15, 2012:
I like using moss, simple to use and looks great.
Allison Whitehead on September 29, 2012:
Fascinating. I must try relocating some moss from our lawn to another more welcome location in the garden.
Elyn MacInnis from Shanghai, China on September 19, 2012:
I took a semester class on mosses - loved it. They live in such a tiny world. But I never heard anyone talk about cultivating them, and so I love your lens. I read (almost) every word! What a wonderful page you have here... Angel blessings to you!
RinchenChodron on September 10, 2012:
What great in depth coverage of moss. Well deserved Purple Star.
irminia on August 16, 2012:
I had no idea about moss, thanx for sharing.
Rosaquid on August 16, 2012:
I live in the desert, so I crave occasional green. Thanks for the fix! I chose you lens for my Rainbow Quest - Green today. Thank you for a well-done green lens.
tsimm51415 on July 16, 2012:
Great lens! I love to garden and have never considered growing moss, but I am going to now. Thanks!
Echo Phoenix on July 03, 2012:
I love moss and your lens;)
YogaAngel on June 30, 2012:
This is so cool!
erin-elise on May 17, 2012:
I love your lens, it's really great! I've been trying to establish different types of mosses and ground covers that look like moss (I don't know if they're considered a moss or not) but I'm having problems with snails eating some of it (and everything else!). I love moss and have been trying to get it to grow in different areas of my yard, but I just started about six months ago so I'm still trying to get it going. Also, I live in Sacramento so it's going to be pretty dry here soon but now I know that it's normal for it to turn brown. Thank you for the info!
Snakesmum on May 15, 2012:
I love moss, and now I'm inspired to try and grow more of it. Thanks for writing this lens.
DebMartin on May 15, 2012:
I love moss. My yard has become full of it and quite the varieties I'm finding. Now I want more lichen. d
anonymous on May 14, 2012:
Moss is very fascinating to look at closely with a hand lens the perfect miniature plant. It always looks so lush and green. What a good idea to use it as a garden feature. Lovely article thank you.
Rae Schwarz (author) from Seattle, WA on May 12, 2012:
@anonymous: Moss grows as fast as it grows. Your best bet is to pull up any weeds, grass or other plants competing for the same space. You can't speed up moss.
Rae Schwarz (author) from Seattle, WA on May 12, 2012:
@anonymous: Moss is a plant just like grass is. You want to support the plants you want (moss) and not support the plants you are trying to minimize (the grass).
caffimages on May 08, 2012:
Interesting idea! I have a lot of moss growing in an neglected lawn. Maybe i'll try some of your ideas...
anonymous on May 08, 2012:
I have a wide swatch of moss behind my house and I want to boost it. What can I spray on it to make it grow faster?
arcarmi on April 30, 2012:
Fascinating lens! Very creative! Noce job!
anonymous on April 21, 2012:
Our yard is becoming a moss farm on its own! Here on Cape Cod we usually have pretty good growing conditions for it. This year has been a challenge. It's been so dry but the rains are coming! I want to let the whole lower yard go to moss but there is still a great deal of grass growing there too. Do I just let mom nature take its course or is there something more "active" I can do? We are talking about a space that is about 1/2 acre, and we do have an irrigation system. Some of it is in bright sun so I'm guessing that the moss won't spread there. Can we still fertilize the grass (we use organic stuff) and just stop when we get to a mossy section or will that kill any moss that might spread there? The moss is really taking over and I thrilled but I certainly don't want to discourage it.
Thanks! Cape Cod Momma
SteveKaye on March 23, 2012:
Moss may be the plant that I need for my office. Thank you for publishing this lens.
anonymous on March 11, 2012:
My mom used to try to grow grass where there was moss, not realizing that the moss liked the area and the grass didn't. I have a great variety of mosses and want to spread their carefree beauty. Thanks to your careful, well thought out experiment I know just what to do. Thank you for your insights and advice. Mark in Ridgewood, NJ
Rae Schwarz (author) from Seattle, WA on March 08, 2012:
@anonymous: The best time of year is whenever it is moist/damp but not too hot or cold. For most locations that often spring or fall, but where I am in the Pacific Northwest of the US, it can be a lot of summer too. Watch your local moss, it's easy to see when it gets thick and plush.
anonymous on February 27, 2012:
anonymous on February 16, 2012:
Is there a "better" time of year to nurture moss in a new area? I've heard spring and autumn but I can be impatient and want to do it now! It's February in northern England so we have about 6 degrees at the moment but the weather is very changeable. We had -7 here a week ago.
Tonie Cook from USA on February 07, 2012:
I have a few places in the back yard where the most is thick and green all year round. Truly one of natures jewels. Your information will come in handy when I consolidate the moss for a corner in the garden. Thank you for sharing this.
shandigp on February 06, 2012:
I wish I hadn't pulled the "dead" moss out of a bonsai I bought. So sad! I know how to replant it now though!
shandigp on February 06, 2012:
How pretty! I think I'll try this, and I imagine the best time in my area is soon.
Rae Schwarz (author) from Seattle, WA on January 29, 2012:
@jimmyworldstar: I think if you go back and read the lens, you'll answer your own question.
jwcooney on January 29, 2012:
Very useful information, I really like the look of moss, but before reading this had no real idea how to propagate or grow it properly. It would be neat if I could make some grow in some flower pots that I have. I will try using the powdered instant milk method since you say that works best. Thanks for the great information!
JZinoBodyArt on January 28, 2012:
Awesome lens! I never thought of moss farming but I would much rather have moss than grass.
jimmyworldstar on January 27, 2012:
What uses are there for moss? Isn't it just a nuisance?
megabu717 on January 27, 2012:
Never thought of farming the moss and I have an ideal place for it. Great lens. Thanks a lot!
BuddyBink on January 27, 2012:
I like moss but, I never thought of farming it. Very interesting. Thanks
Julia Morais on January 26, 2012:
I stay in a country with hot climate. I've seen moss grow before, but am not sure whether it can grow outdoors in this heat. I would love to have it grow somewhere in my garden though.
Tjoedhilde on January 26, 2012:
Beautiful and it looks so soft! :)
parwatisingari lm on January 25, 2012:
that interests me, growing moss in pots
emmaklarkins on January 24, 2012:
I love moss! We used to have a fair bit growing in Maine. I'd love to try this someday.
Art-Aspirations on January 23, 2012:
Moss farming is new to me, but I have always tried to convince my husband that it looks better than grass on the north side of our house. Why fight it?
lilymom24 on January 23, 2012:
I love moss and have what I call my "moss garden" in a planter on my porch. I wasn't planning on growing any but once it started, I let it continue to grow. Lovely lens. =)
bjslapidary on January 23, 2012:
I've always been intriqued with moss. It grows in the pines here where the sun doesn't get to it. In some woods there are multiple kinds. I like it when it is nice and green and spongy. Thanks for sharing your experience. Nice read.
John Dyhouse from UK on January 23, 2012:
I started off reading this for a laugh. A while ago, for an art challenge actually, I started writing a fantasy tale about a country on the southern tip of Eire which was covered in moss and they could not grow normal crops because the weather was so wet. But I actually enjoyed the idea of a moss garden, especially the light well. you have just made a convert. Thanks for a great lens. - blessed
ChrisLReed on January 16, 2012:
I've never tried to deliberately grow moss, but I've always loved the way it looks when it establishes itself. I used to have a flower bed that would end up covered in some areas with moss. I'll have to give this a try in the new garden we are creating. Thank you for the idea.
kimbesa from USA on January 08, 2012:
Never heard of moss farming before this, but it sounds wonderful...I love moss!
MadHaps LM on December 20, 2011:
Moss is a great macro plant so interesting to get up close to. My first lens was "Orchids of the Americas" so I think I may follow it with miniature orchids.
wolfie10 on November 20, 2011:
thanks for this nice lens. I am trying to make concrete pots and planters and cover them with moss sounds like something people will like.
Linda Hoxie from Idaho on November 04, 2011:
What a unique hobby to have, this was very interesting. Blessed!
homerepellent on October 08, 2011:
I'm into the gardening of plants and flowers but the idea of mass farming! I should give this a try, just for the heck of it. Thank you for the inspiration.
Deb Kingsbury from Flagstaff, Arizona on August 11, 2011:
Oh. P.S. -- *Blessed by this Squid angel on the Back to School Bus Tour*
Deb Kingsbury from Flagstaff, Arizona on August 11, 2011:
This is excellent! I love moss and really miss it now that I live in the high desert in Arizona. I remember hiking through Maine on the Appalachian Trail and passing through a green wonderland carpeted and cloaked in moss. It was getting late in the day and couldn't resist sleeping on that soft, squishy bed of green. SO comfortable! not to mention so beautiful in the evening light, filtering through the moss-covered trees.
anonymous on July 27, 2011:
Really liked your moss Lense. I never really noticed it as a desirable planting. That was until we were camping in late May in the western mountains of Maryland. It was all over the place on this trail we used each day to get down to the river.
By day three, I was imagining it to be a place where 'the woodland fairies' dwelled. Like nature's welcome mat ~ so soft and inviting. It was just beautiful.
Thanks for reminding me about that great trip! :)
N T T
pawpaw911 on July 15, 2011:
Very interesting lens.
Tolovaj Publishing House from Ljubljana on July 10, 2011:
I never heard of moss gardening. It looks very interesting. Thanks for sharing your knowledge and beautiful photos.
anonymous on July 03, 2011:
@justholidays: I loved reading about the moss and I really want some for my garden. Do you still have extra? I'm made about moss!
anonymous on July 03, 2011:
Is anyone farming enough moss that they'd like to sell some of it? I've always had a fascination with moss and have decided To get rid of the grass in my backyard.
Virginia Allain from Central Florida on July 01, 2011:
I started moss gardening in NH three or four years ago. The plush green of the different mosses is so appealing to me. The deer like it too, especially when the moss in the woods is dry while my moss is moist and plump from my misting efforts.
CherrrieB on June 04, 2011:
I guess between the ground bees and moss, my yard is the way I like it.
CherrrieB on June 04, 2011:
I love moss and have some establislhed on my drip line. There the soil doesn't erode due to the help of the moss. Though the best place moss loves to grow is on my shingles. People have come and told me it will damage the roof If I let it stay. Other than that, If I get a chance to get up on my roof to get the moss, I shall fill in more of the drip line.
justholidays on May 29, 2011:
Ok, so do you want me to send you my excess moss? There's too much of it on my roof and in my garden, lol.
Interesting lens, though.
Blessed by a passing angel on Squidoo.
Wanda Fitzgerald from Central Florida on April 01, 2011:
I have to admit the title drew me in. I've never considered moss farming but it sure is pretty.
tailortoo on April 01, 2011:
Shaded parts of our lawn have become covered in moss, and stay quite green due to our Canadian east coast dampness. It is great, a nice cushion to walk on and no mowing needed.
imolaK on March 31, 2011:
Very interesting lens. Blessed by an Angel!