Poisonous Plants: Hellebore, Oleander and Vinca or Periwinkle

Kingston Cardinal (Hellebore)
Kingston Cardinal (Hellebore) | Source

If you didn't know that hellebores, oleander and periwinkle (Vinca major and Vinca minor) are poisonous, this is a warning to you!

Do not be lulled into a false sense of security by thinking only a few plants are poisonous, such as the well-known ones digitalis (foxglove), hemlock, mistletoe and deadly nightshade.

No, no, no!

Poisonous Plants

These three plants will not necessarily kill you,

but could make you ill

1. Hellebore

Hellebore in spring (Helleborus argutifolius)
Hellebore in spring (Helleborus argutifolius) | Source

Common Names of Hellebore

Some common names are species-specific, including

  • Stinking hellebore (Helleborus foetidus)
  • Christmas rose (H. niger)
  • Fragrant hellebore and sweet hellebore (H. odorus)
  • Lenten rose (H. orientalis)
  • Purple hellebore (H. purpurascens)
  • Green hellebore (H. viridis)

Symptoms of Hellebore Poisoning

Hellebores contain glycosides variously named helleborin(e), helleborein(e) and helleborigenin(e). In common with many of the buttercup family, hellebores also contain protoanemonin in varying amounts according to the species.

The roots of all Helleborus are strongly emetic and potentially fatal. In the past, it was sometimes used to cause vomiting after poisoning but this is now known to be harmful. Some varieties were used in the past to treat worms in children, the idea being to expel the worms by vomiting. Some varieties of worm remain in the stomach so this treatment may sometimes have been successful. Where the worms had moved to the gut, however, it would seem that the dose would be repeated and increased, often resulting in the death of the child.

Hellebores are said to produce diarrhoea and have caused cardiac (heart) problems.

Sap and Seeds From Hellebores Are Poisonous to Touch

Be very careful when harvesting hellebore seeds. It is best to wait until the seed pods dry out and then just shake them into a container or collect them from the ground.

This summer I was myself poisoned by hellebore sap—my fingers turned black, as though badly burned. Here's how it happened:

I picked the seed pods whilst the seeds were still green, and spent about twenty minutes squeezing the seeds out of the pods, so that my fingers were in constant contact with the sap. I began to feel a tingling pins-and-needles feeling in my fingers and thumbs and it got so bad that I felt dizzy and had to sit down and my hands felt partly paralyzed and burning. After a few more minutes I realized what had caused the problem and ran my hands under cold water to wash away the juice. My fingers turned very red, almost purple, and were throbbing.

After 24 hours they were, if anything, worse, and I went to the doctor, who said I had done the right thing washing off the poison; she prescribed an emollient cream to rub on, and I certainly needed that. Over the next few days the skin on my fingers and thumbs turned almost black and became so hard and chitinous that I could actually hear them scratching like a beetle when I tapped them on the table. They were very painful and burning.

Helleborus argutifolius
Helleborus argutifolius | Source

Numerous Garden Hellebores, All Poisonous

Hellebores flower shortly after Christmas; they flower for about three months, sometimes more. The Christmas rose, Helleborus niger, is fairly low growing, with palmate leaves. Some of them are taller, up to 2 or 3 feet high. Hellebores are mostly creamy white tinged with green, sometimes with mauve or pink colours.

They are self-seeding and propagate very easily from the seeds which form in large seedpods when the flowers have finished. Hellebores are useful plants in the garden, because they grow well in shade or half-sun, and have ornate large green palmate leaves which fill up empty spaces in winter when other plants have died back. The buds start forming in December, ready to burst forth in late winter or early spring.

Purple Hellebore (Helleborus x Hybridus)

Hellebore | Source

This hellebore is more unusual. I must confess, I sneaked into my neighbours' front garden when they were away to take this photo—I mean, fancy going away when you have something like this coming into bloom—isn't it beautiful?

2. Oleander (Nerium oleander)

Oleander:  poisonous plant
Oleander: poisonous plant

Oleander (Nerium oleander) is one of the most dangerous poisonous plants. The whole plant is poisonous, and even water that the cut plants have stood in is poisonous. It grows wild in Mediterranean countries.

Medical Uses: Oleander contains the principal cardiac glycosides oleandrin, which can be used instead of digitalis, and neriine, as well as folinerin and digitoxigenin. The cardiovascular system may be affected by the glycosides oleandrin, oleandroside, and nerioside. The two most potent poisons are oleandrin and neriine, known for their powerful effect on the heart.

Symptoms: Oleander causes intense abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, drowsiness, dizziness, visual disturbances, rapid pulse, an irregular heartbeat and heart malfunction, often causing death. The sap in contact with the skin can cause dermatitis, blistering, irritation and soreness.

Treatment consists of inducing the patient to vomit, stomach pumping, or feeding activated charcoal in order to absorb as much of the poison as possible. The odds of surviving increase dramatically If the victim survives the initial 24 hours after ingestion.

More About Oleander Poison: Oleander poison is so strong that it can poison a person who simply eats the honey made by bees that have digested oleander nectar.

If taken internally it is deadly to humans and most animals. Cattle, sheep and goats can be killed by drinking water into which leaves of oleander have fallen.

The poisons are said to survive burning, so cooking over a fire of oleander wood is said to cause the poison to transfer via the smoke to meat being cooked. During the Peninsular Wars some of Wellington's soldiers are said to have died after eating meat cooked on skewers made from the wood.

Soldiers sleeping on oleander branches were reported to have died according to the Gardener's Chronicle in 1880.

In 1989, the Western Journal of Medicine reported the case of an 83-year old woman who attempted suicide by drinking a tea made of an infusion of oleander leaves. She suffered severe bradycardia with a pulse rate of 40 and was treated with atropine to counteract this. There are other reports in the literature of failed suicide attempts.

There are reports of a wide range of animals being poisoned by oleander, including sheep, cattle, horses, canaries, budgerigars, donkeys, a sloth and a bear. In general, farm animals sense that they should avoid contact with oleander. and, because of this, in Mediterranean countries oleander is sometimes used as a field boundary in preference to a fence.

3. Periwinkle

Vinca minor (periwinkle), a poisonous plant
Vinca minor (periwinkle), a poisonous plant | Source

Periwinkle (Vinca major and Vinca minor) is a mildly poisonous plant. Periwinkle or vinca has small shiny leaves, and small violet star-shaped flowers in spring and then intermittently during summer and autumn.

Vinca is evergreen and low-lying and gradually spreads, so needs to be kept under control. It is a useful plant because it is good ground cover, even growing rampantly under trees. It is happy in sun or shade, but needs watering if the weather is hot and dry.

Vinca major is a close relative of oleander but is far less harmful. Eating vinca plants can cause systemic toxicity varying from mild abdominal cramping to serious cardiac (heart) complications

Medicinal use: Vinca contains a group of alkaloids including vinchristine and vinblastine, both of which are used in chemotherapy. Vinca has been used to treat high blood pressure and control excessive bleeding, but overdose results in hypotension (low blood pressure), which can cause collapse.

Poisonous Plant: Vinca Major

Vinca major (periwinkle), a poisonous plant. It looks like Vinca minor, but has larger leaves and flowers
Vinca major (periwinkle), a poisonous plant. It looks like Vinca minor, but has larger leaves and flowers

A List of Common Plants Poisonous to Humans

Grow poisonous plants, by all means, but be alert to the dangers. You need to be particularly wary of poisonous plants if there are children around—they love red and white berries, and it is so easy for them to snap the stems of plants which then exude poisonous sap. You know what kids are like; if their fingies are sticky, they lick them.


  • Holly
  • Mistletoe
  • Oleander
  • Hellebore
  • Ivy
  • Periwinkle (Vinca Minor and Vinca Major)
  • Rhubarb (the leaves)
  • Castor Oil Plant (Ricin comes from this plant)
  • Daffodils
  • Crocus
  • Deadly Nightshade
  • Potato (the green parts of this plant)
  • Rhododendron
  • Hydrangea
  • Digitalis (Foxglove)
  • Poinsettia
  • Lupins

Have I frightened you enough yet?

The Most Important Thing is to Keep Children and Animals Away from Poisonous Plants

Helleborus Heronswood Double Pink
Helleborus Heronswood Double Pink | Source

Take This Poll about Poisonous Plants

Vote here and test yourself against the others. Did you learn anything new and unexpected?

Were you aware that Hellebore, Oleander and Periwinkle are poisonous plants before reading this article?

  • Yes, it's all old hat to me
  • No, I will be more careful in future
See results without voting

Have You Got Any Comments About Poisonous Plants?

It would be interesting to hear how common such poisoning is among our community. But do come and visit and leave your comments, even if you haven't got any lurid stories to tell. I love to hear from people round the world.

More by this Author

Have You or Anyone You Know Been Poisoned by Plants? 76 comments

sheriangell profile image

sheriangell 6 years ago

I adore digging in the dirt and making things grow so discover which plants are poisonous a long time ago, fortunately from research and not the hard way like you did....yikes! Very well put together lens, jam packed with useful information.

BarbRad profile image

BarbRad 6 years ago from Templeton, CA

I knew about oleander, since I've always lived around it. The other two I was not aware of, but don't have either on my property yet. I'm off to read about irises, since i do have those.

WebSpinstress 6 years ago

But, Hellebore are so pretty...especially in dark shaded varieties! Lensrolling to Gothic Midnight Garden to make sure that no one will eat them. ;-) So sorry to read about your experience with harvesting Hellebore. Scary....

norma-holt profile image

norma-holt 6 years ago

Another great lens on an important subject. I blamed Oleander for giving me the start to a lifelong battle with sinus as my grandmother grew it and as young kids we would pick the flowers. I also felt ill afterwards. Blessed and featured on Sprinkled with Stardust


mariaamoroso profile image

mariaamoroso 6 years ago from Sweden

Very interesting lens! I learned the English names thanks to you =)

Hairdresser007 profile image

Hairdresser007 6 years ago from Burbank, CA

interesting. how strange about your fingers turning black!!! i would have been freaked out!

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 6 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@Hairdresser007: Yes, I was freaked out - it looked like gangrene (not that I know what gangrene looks like), and I envisaged whole digits dropping off!

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 6 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@norma-holt: Thanks so much for that, Norma

anonymous 6 years ago

Following a recent piece on Gardeners World showing how to get the seeds (the presenter wearing gloves), I too decided to harvest the seeds. It's now one week later and my finger and thumb tips on both hands are still numb. The burning only lasted three days but persists when I try to hold something or type. I feel a warning should have been given as to why one should wear gloves.

anonymous 6 years ago

Hi Stuart,

It's all very well wearing gloves, but try opening seed pods with thick gloves on - you wouldn't get very far! Hope your fingies are better soon - mine took about 4 weeks to feel completely normal again.

Shades-of-truth profile image

Shades-of-truth 6 years ago from USA

Yea! I was so very glad to see this Lens! I live in Florida, and tell anyone who will listen to me, about Oleander. Before we moved back up north, when I was a little girl, we were in Florida. There were signs everywhere, warning of the dangers of Oleander. Now, they are planted everywhere, and there are no signs to be found. Great Lens!

OhMe profile image

OhMe 6 years ago from Pendleton, SC

Our yard is filled with Periwinkle and I had no idea that it was poisonous, too. My goodness, you sure have given me a lot to think about. Your garden is lovely.

capriliz lm profile image

capriliz lm 6 years ago

I knew about oleander, but did not know that periwinkle was poisonous. Thank you for putting this together.

SueM11 profile image

SueM11 6 years ago from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Thanks for the information. i didn't know that periwinkle was poisonous. Somehow we assume the common flowers we see everyday are safe.

Charmcrazey profile image

Charmcrazey 5 years ago from Central Florida

You have a great selection of gardening lenses. I am an avid gardener myself but my subtropical landscape looks quite different. Right now it's a bit out of control as I'm doing more squidoo writing than garden maintenance.

GonnaFly profile image

GonnaFly 5 years ago from Australia

What an informative lens! Vincristine, from the vinca plant, was one of the drugs in my daughter's chemotherapy and contributed to her hair loss at the time.

anonymous 5 years ago

It is so surprising that these poisonous plants have such beautiful flowers, periwinkle is quite lovely. However, some of these can be very helpful with drugs.

howtocurecancer profile image

howtocurecancer 5 years ago

This is new to me even the leaves of rhubarb. Great lens.

PrettyWorld 5 years ago

We have livestock, so we need to be very careful about poisonous plants. I only plant them in the parts of our land downhill and downstream from our animal areas, and then only in limited numbers.

Some are too risky for us to plant at all. We will not grow castor bean here, and we can't grow rhodendrons because their poisonous foliage stays lush and green during seasons when the rest of the land is sparse. If a goat were ever to get out of the "Goatland" area, there's to great a chance their first stop would be the nearest rhodedendron bush

That said, we do grow and use some medicinal herbs (like comfrey and skullcap) that have been used as folk remedies for ages but in modern times have been grouped into some "dangerous to use" lists. But we use them sparingly as needed, and as fresh herbs, not concentrated extracts.

sidther lm profile image

sidther lm 5 years ago

I love how you have presented this! Great lens!

pacrapacma lm profile image

pacrapacma lm 5 years ago

My kids are always asking which plants are poisonous. We've grown Nasturtiums and let them eat the flowers.

Chardoo 5 years ago

You have a lovely garden. Thank you for your lenses about poisonous plants. I hadn't realized how many were in my yard

WildWilliams profile image

WildWilliams 4 years ago

Thank you for this information.

Joan Haines profile image

Joan Haines 4 years ago

Thank you. I have vinca/periwinkle all over out in the front yard. You're doing a great service by getting this information to more of us.

anonymous 4 years ago

I already knew that many of these plants were poisonous, but some surprised me, and dozens of them grow in my yard. I need to study poisonous plants for a science project, and this page helped me know which plants i'm going to focus on- and all of them grow in my yard! thank you!

Seasons Greetings profile image

Seasons Greetings 4 years ago from Ontario, Canada

I have a few helleborus growing. I didn't know they were poisonous. Haven't noticed any reaction after transplanting them or moving debris from them in the garden.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 4 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@Seasons Greetings: I was collecting seeds and emptying seed pods for about twenty minutes, with the sap in contact with my fingers, before I started to feel the adverse effects.

Ilonagarden profile image

Ilonagarden 4 years ago from Ohio

I'm late discovering your marvelous lenses. Your series on poisonous plants is a service. I used to eat flowers as a child, so I'm surprised I didn't suffer any ill effects! But my mother pointed out the ones we should never eat, and that likely helped.

anonymous 4 years ago

I remember hear about most of these poisonous plants, and now I recall about the green parts of potatoes. Flowers are good to eat, but it best to know which ones. Thank you for this information. :)

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 4 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@anonymous: Yes, and although rhubard stems are edible, the leaves are poisonous

anonymous 4 years ago

Thanks for the useful information. I wasn't really aware that these plants are poisonous until now.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 4 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@anonymous: No, that's the trouble - there are the obvious names that everyone knows, like deadly nightshade, but so many plants can cause problems of one kind or another

EbooksFreeWeekl1 profile image

EbooksFreeWeekl1 4 years ago

Very interesting and informative lens! My problem is fear of the plants that are harmful to pets as well without identifying them. Thank you for the research! :)

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 4 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@EbooksFreeWeekl1: I know, it worries me too, and I shall write about it soon, when I have done my research

VeronicaHaynes 3 years ago

This is a really helpful lens. I didn't know that Oleander plants were so poisonous. Thanks for the great info:)

bender2003 3 years ago

Poisonous plants means anti neoplastic drug either vinca alcaloids (vincristin) or nerium oleander extract from Zakkum are all potent chemotherapeutics.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@bender2003: Thanks for the information

Frischy profile image

Frischy 3 years ago from Kentucky, USA

I thought I had periwinkle in my yard, but the flowers are different. Not sure if it is a different variety or something else altogether. Either way, I won't eat it until I know for sure!

gregxavier 3 years ago

Great article! I had the poison Ivy thing real bad last year it was all over my body,I was miserable for weeks.

anonymous 3 years ago

Periwinkles are pretty poison. I did not know that.

Keith J Winter profile image

Keith J Winter 3 years ago from Spain

Another great lens Diana. I didn't know that Oleander was so poisonous. It is a beautiful plant which grows all around my village here in Spain. I will have to be careful.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@Frischy: Eatiing strange plants is a bit like eating sweets from strangers - you just don't do it!

BLouw profile image

BLouw 3 years ago from France

Yet more lovely garden plants that turn out to be deadly! Thanks for the warnings.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@BLouw: : Thank you for your message which will be dealt with as soon as possible.

This is an automated reply.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@gregxavier: Poor you - it's awful, isn't it

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@Keith J Winter: Yes, I remember seeing it in Spain and Mallorca. I think all these things are OK in the garden as long as you don't have contact with the sap, or wash your hands soon afterwards if you can't avoid handling the plants

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@anonymous: I didn't know either until I started researching poisonous garden plants

vicky71 3 years ago

I have periwinkles in my garden. My daughter generally plucks the flowers. It is so scary as i got to know about it. It looks so harmless. I suffer from High BP. So may be good for me. Thnaks for such an informative and unique information.

Raymond Eagar profile image

Raymond Eagar 3 years ago


mel-kav profile image

mel-kav 3 years ago

I can't think of anyone I know that has been poisoned by plants. But I wonder if some people have had some mild poisoning after gardening and blamed the hot weather for their dizziness, nausea, weakness, etc. I had no idea so many plants were poisonous. Thanks for the information.

Susie05 3 years ago

I have a ton of Periwinkle, Oh my gosh! Ugh... I had no idea!

Great lens!!

grrbtn profile image

grrbtn 3 years ago

I am a keen gardener who tend to concentrate on growing veg and fruit, so I do have some awareness of what not to eat or touch without gloves. Your lens provides a valuable source of information on some poisonous plants. Thank you for sharing that with us.

SavioC profile image

SavioC 3 years ago

Thanks for the info. I never knew Periwinkle was poisonous . Very helpful info.

Lorelei Cohen profile image

Lorelei Cohen 3 years ago from Canada

It really can be scary to stumble onto a poisonous plant without realizing it. Christmas always frightens me with the big promotion of Poinsettias. They are so dangerous for little children and pets.

tonyleather 3 years ago

Fabulous post!

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 2 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@Lorelei Cohen: We used to have one in our garden when I lived in Africa. We were just told not to lick our fingers after touching the milk (sap), otherwise just left to get on with it. Maybe there should be some kind of warning on the Christmas poinsettias we see every year.

TanoCalvenoa 2 years ago

Throughout parts of Southern California, including in people's yards and along sidewalks, there are many oleander plants and it always worries me. They have them around golf courses in Palm Springs, and sometimes when the grass is mowed bighorn sheep eat the clippings, and if there's any oleander they can die. It's a scary plant.

burntchestnut 2 years ago

I knew about oleander, but not the other three.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 2 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@burntchestnut: Yes, many people are unaware of which plants are poisonous - I don't recall having been taught about this at school. Maybe poisonous plants should be on the school syllabus

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 2 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@Susie05: I have grown it in my garden for years where nothing else would grow, and no-one in my family has suffered any ill effects, but I personally have suffered very bad effects after 20 minutes of skin contact whilst collecting hellebore seeds - thought my fingers were going to drop off!

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 2 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@TanoCalvenoa: Yes, it's like that in many of the warmer European countries too

AlleyCatLane 2 years ago

Amazing we weren't poisoned as kids. The navy housing projects were our playground and there were oleanders every where. We used to catch Uncle Sams flying around the flowers and broke off branches to put in the jar with them when we caught them. I current;y have ivy, hydrangeas and usually periwinkles in my yard. Other than the ivy, had no idea the plants were poisonous. Thanks for this information.

junecampbell profile image

junecampbell 2 years ago from North Vancouver, BC, Canada

I have never been poisoned by plants, nor do I know anyone else who has been. It is good information to know, though. I am wondering about the green part of potatoes. I have heard before that it is poisonous, but I know I have eaten small bits of green spots on potatoes with no ill effects. Maybe you have to eat a lot before it makes you ill?

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 2 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@junecampbell: Some people say you should never eat any part of a potato that has turned green, but I don't know. I have cut off the green parts and eaten the rest occasionally without ill effects, but would hesitate to suggest that anyone else should do that, as people probably have different levels of tolerance

MelanieKaren profile image

MelanieKaren 2 years ago from Pennsylvania, USA

I'm amazed of just how unaware we are of what is poisonous and what is not. It blows my mind really. I bet learning the hard way was no fun for you! -glad you're better and that you were able to figure it out! :)

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 2 years ago from United Kingdom Author

@MelanieKaren: No sign of lasting damage, but it was very scary at the time, and I'm a bit wary of hellebores now, although I must admit I still grow a lot of them, because they are so beautiful and have long lasting flowers over a period slightly before the rest of the garden starts flowering

John Dyhouse profile image

John Dyhouse 2 years ago from UK

Wow, forewarned is forearmed - thanks for the information

Brite-Ideas profile image

Brite-Ideas 2 years ago from Toronto, Canada

wow. this was very helpful - many on this list I had no idea about! Periwinkle! a must share page for sure, thank you

pinkcupcakegirl 2 years ago

@SavioC: I found this interesting since Vinpocetine is an alkaloid found in the leaf of periwinkle. It's commercially sold as a Nootropic (brain function enhancing) supplement. I guess in the case of Periwinkle, whole food nutrition isn't the way to go!

Nancy Hardin profile image

Nancy Hardin 17 months ago from Las Vegas, NV

I knew about oleander, didn't know about the others. We used to have Vinca growing in our yard for a time....but no more since I no longer garden. However, if you visit Las Vegas, you will see Oleander in abundant plantings throughout the city.Our next door neighbor has a wall of oleander, and it's common because it's a drought tolerant plant that blooms well. I see the little feral kitties sitting on the block wall fence, hiding behind the Oleander branches. It never seems to bother them.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 17 months ago from United Kingdom Author

Oleander is not very common in the UK, but I see it when I travel, sometimes growing wild on slopes, so clearly it tolerates neglect and lack of water.

I know that lots of poisonous plants are grown where there are children and pets, with no ill effects. I stand guilty of this myself. I think no harm befalls them because the poison is in the sap, so they would not necessarily come into contact with it. Possibly animals are equipped with some sensory perception which warns them not to eat these plants, and children - well, I certainly would discourage children from playing with the sap, or licking their fingers after touching plants.

We live with danger all around us, and mainly come through it unscathed, don't we?

LauraD093 profile image

LauraD093 16 months ago from Pittsburgh PA

really enjoyed this article -I have periwinkle as ground cover and never knew it was toxic-great information.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 16 months ago from United Kingdom Author

I didn't know either, until I started doing some research.

valerie waisanen 13 months ago

These vinca don't look like the periwinkles I have and see everywhere... They're always purple? I don't think so...curious how they're used to create chemo drugs, too.I live in far South Texas.Vincas are one of few plants that will withstand heat, drought, humidity of summertime. They're usually white,pink,scarlet.

Gloriousconfusion profile image

Gloriousconfusion 13 months ago from United Kingdom Author

I've never seen white, pink or scarlet vinca - they are always purple in my garden. I've just looked them up and was amazed to see the different colours in America - we live and learn, so thanks for that information, Valerie

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Lady Lorelei 13 months ago from Canada

It truly is shocking how many common plants are poisonous. Also how beautiful they are. I would never have known or suspected.

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    Diana Grant (Gloriousconfusion)174 Followers
    164 Articles

    I love gardening, garden design, learning gardening techniques and photographing plants. I was a member of the Royal Horticultural Society.

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