Door Closer Basics
Types of Door Closers
See also: Door Closer Adjustment
A door closer is a spring-loaded hydraulic device that closes a door automatically. The most common kind of door closer is the surface mounted door closer, so called because it is mounted to the surface of the door or header. Also available are concealed overhead door closers that are mounted inside the header above the door or inside the door itself, and floor closers that are installed beneath the threshold. Pictures of the different types of door closers are shown at right.
Surface Mount Door Closers
Surface mounted door closers are by far the most common kind of door closers. They are relatively inexpensive and easy to install. Unlike concealed door closers for which doors are almost always prepared by the door manufacturer, surface mounted door closers need no special prep.
As shown at right, surface mounted closers can be mounted in standard, top jamb or parallel arm configurations. Standard configuration is used on the pull side of the door whereas parallel arm and top jamb installations are for the push side.
Not shown are surface mounted track closers which use a single arm and a slide track instead of the double lever arm shown in the pictures at right.
Non-track surface mounted doorclosers are available with different kinds of arms that perform different functions. These functions are discussed below in the section called, "Arms."
Concealed Door Closers
Examples of two kinds of concealed door closers are shown in photos at right. There is a third kind, the overhead concealed-in-door door closer, but since it is so rarely used I will not discuss it here.
Concealed door closers are always used when a door is "double acting," that is, it swings both ways, and are often used in high traffic applications, such as the front door of a large office building. As you see above, surface mounted door closers are not about to win any beauty contests. Concealed closers offer designers a cleaner look than surface closers.
Floor closers are almost always used with pivot hinges as opposed to butt hinges. Pivot hinges are stronger and more durable than butt hinges.
What You Need to Know to Order
Here is a list of information that you need to know before you order a door closer:
- Interior or Exterior Door?
- Left Hand or Right Hand swing?
- Door closer to be mounted on the push or pull side?
- Door width?
- Pivot hinges or butt hinges?
- What is the door made of? Wood? Hollow metal? Glass and aluminum?
- If there is glass, what is the size of the piece of material onto which you want to mount the door closer?
When you have this information you are ready to call your hardware professional. If you are unsure what kind of closer will best suit your application, your hardware professional can suggest one based on the information above.
In the pictures of surface mounted door closers at the beginning of this article, the closers all have what is called a standard, double lever arm. This arm is pictured at right. Below it are shown a few examples of optional arms that are available to give surface mounted door closers more functionality.
Hold Open Arm
Most door closer arms are available in a hold open version. Usually they work by friction. Opening the door to a certain degree tightens a nut which causes the arm to stick at a point, holding the door open.
Dedicated Parallel Arm
Called by LCN an Extra Duty Arm and by Norton a Parallel Rigid Arm, this arm is for an extra sturdy, parallel arm only application door closer.
Called a Cush'n'Stop arm by LCN and a Closer Plus arm by Norton, this arm doubles as a stop to keep the door from opening too far and perhaps hitting a wall.
At the bottom of the column of pictures of door closer arms is a picture of an LCN 4041 door closer from the LCN catalog, parallel arm mount, on a plate that is called a "drop plate." It is used to provide a surface to which you can attach the door closer when the surface of the door is too narrow to do so. In the illustration, the 4041 is mounted on an aluminum-and-glass storefront door. The aluminum is too narrow, so the 18PA plate attaches to the aluminum of the door and the 4041 attaches to the plate.
About the Author...
Tom Rubenoff has worked for over 35 years in the door hardware industry, first as a locksmith, then as the owner of a locksmith business, and finally as technical sales representative in hardware distribution.
Questions & Answers
MY door closer will not fully close the door. I have tried adjusting it, but no adjustment works. Is it time for a new door closer? Or am I missing something?
It could be some things. First, remove the door closer and see if the door shuts with little effort or needs some force to close fully. If the door does not swing well, or a bent hinge or sprung frame causes resistance, these factors can significantly inhibit the closer's ability to close and latch the door. Sometimes the solution is to fix or replace the door and/or door frame.
Air pressure can also be a factor, as I mentioned in the article. Significant air pressure that opposes the motion of the closer can be a severe problem to solve.
If the door swings well and there is no air pressure problem, it sounds to me like the arm may not be installed correctly, or perhaps the closer is not installed correctly. If you can download the manufacturer's install instructions, you can check the mounting hole locations and see if they are right. Also if the arm is installed at the wrong angle on the spindle, the closer may not work correctly.Helpful 2
The arm is not level after it is fastened into the door frame. How can this be addressed if the door frame is not a smooth surface, but more like crown molding?
When a decorative molding makes door closer installation challenging, you can 1) use parallel arm installation on the push side of the door, or 2) if the molding is made of wood, cut into the decorative molding on the header to make a flat place to install the shoe. It is very difficult to pull off option 2 and have it not turn out like the hack job it is, but sometimes there is no choice. For example, on an exterior in-swinging door, one cannot install the closer out in the weather.
A second choice for option 1 would be to use a track closer instead of a parallel arm.
Another, much more labor-intensive solution is to use a door closer that is concealed in the door, header, or floor. If you have a lot of extra time and money, a concealed door closer will do the job.Helpful 2
The door closer arms are not arrayed at the acute angles shown in your illustrations, or in the manual's illustrations. Could this be affecting how difficult the door is to open?
It certainly could.Helpful 1
I have an entry door with a 140mm reveal. The door frame is only visible down each side. Could you recommend a door closer that will work with this setup?
Your question prompts me to ask a question. Is this reveal on the pull side? If you are mounting the closer on the pull side of the door, having a reveal that is several inches deep is a problem. However, if you are mounting the closer on the header (also called top jamb installation), there are many closers that have extended arms for this application.
In older buildings, I have run into unique situations that prevent any kind of satisfactory install. One can either improvise or compromise. Maybe the compromise is using a corner bracket in an opening that is not tall enough to allow a corner bracket, or maybe it is opting for spring hinges instead.
One thing to avoid is installing the closer contrary to the installation instructions with the idea of adapting the closer to the non-standard situation. This always results in the closer not working properly.
We’ve had two Dorma TS72 closers detach from the door, and the fitter blamed it on vandalism when we know that this is not the case. What could have possibly caused this? The arm stays attached to the door frame, and on one of the doors, a screw snapped in half where the closer had ripped away from the door.
Is it installed correctly? That is, is the closer installed in the right place on the door according to the instructions? Was the arm installed correctly, or was it installed in such a way as to get more power out of the closer than it was designed to have? These are the things I would check first.
Secondly, if there is this much force being exerted against this door, perhaps you might consider adding an overhead stop that will keep the force away from the closer.
It would be helpful to know whether these closers are installed on the push side or the pull side, but I think, because of the apparent force that is being exerted on the mounting screws, that they are probably mounted on the push side and are therefore in a parallel arm configuration. A parallel arm mount would be the only kind of mount that would apply a direct pull on the mounting screws.
If the closers are mounted in a parallel arm, when the arm is extended until it stops it will, in effect, pull on the closer body. Dorma's instruction sheet on this install actually has almost no words on it and does not say to what degree the door will open when this closer is mounted according to the instructions. It is unusual for mounting screws to pull out of the door or be sheared off. I think we can conclude that the door is being opened with sufficient force to 'bottom out' the arm such that it pulls very hard on the closer body, pulling out or shearing off the screws.
© 2008 Tom Rubenoff