How to Put Up Cabinets, Shelves, and Coat Hangers
Mounting Stuff on Walls - Tools and Fixings Required
- Screwdriver, Phillips and/or flat
- Power Drill - Corded or cordless
- Spirit level or a good eye!
- Drill bits
- Wall plugs, spring toggles, expansion bolts, express anchors
Mounting Cupboards or Brackets on a Timber Wall
The method used to mount cupboards, brackets for shelves, coat hooks etc on a wall depends on the nature of the wall construction.
If the wall is timber or timber panelling you can simply screw the brackets or back of the cabinet to the wall with 10 or 11 gage (about 5mm) screws with a length between 1 1/4 and 1 1/2 inches (30 or 40 x 5mm). Depending on the thickness of the bracket or back of the cabinet, you may have to increase the length of the screw. In any case, try to have about a 40mm or 1 1/2 inch section of the screw actually screwed into the wall. Metal brackets usually have pre-drilled holes. Cabinets sometimes have flat pieces of metal at the back from which the cabinet can be screwed to the wall and "suspended". Alternatively if the back of the cabinet is fairly thick and not just thin hardboard, you can drive screws straight through from front to back and into the wall. If the back of a cabinet isn't pre-drilled, drill holes the same diameter as the screws you are using and then screw the screws into the wall.
Mounting on Drywall (Plasterboard)
For stud and drywall (also known as plasterboard) there are several options. You can use plastic wall plugs (See mounting on masonry walls below) directly pushed into the plaster. However these are only suitable for very light loads (e.g. small mirrors or light picture frames) and they can pull out. Don't use them for mounting stuff on ceilings although you might get away with using them for something light such as a smoke alarm. The appropriate fixings for drywall are metal or plastic self-drive fixings, spring toggle anchors or expansion anchors. For heavier loads, screw directly into the wall studs.
These are small metal fixings with a coarse outer thread and inner thread which takes a screw. These will either have a cutting edge and make their own hole in the wall or you may have to drill a small pilot hole first. You then screw the fitting into the wall and attach whatever you are hanging on the the wall to the fixings using the screw provided. These are fine for mounting socket outlets, switches, light fittings on ceilings, and other light loads.
Spring Toggle Anchors
Alternatively you can use spring toggle fixings. You drill a hole for these, insert the fitting into the hole and two spring loaded arms open out at the back of the drywall giving anchorage. These provide better anchorage than self-drive anchors which could pull out of the drywall if the load is heavy. The disadvantage of these is that if the screw is removed, the toggle will fall down inside the wall. Also they require a relatively large hole drilled in the drywall.
Hollow Expansion Anchors
The hollow shell of these anchors expand as the screw is tightened, pushing against the back surface of the drywall. This gives good grip and the fixings are suitable for heavier loads.
Screwing Into the Wall Studs
Either of the methods described above is fine if the cupboard or shelves are not carrying heavy loads. A more secure method is to drive screws into the center of the wall studs.
Plasterboard (drywall) is nailed onto a hollow timber framework known as a stud wall or framing. This is composed of vertical and horizontal sections called studs and noggings (blocking) respectively.
You can find a stud by tapping the wall and when you locate a point where the sound is less "hollow", a stud is underneath. Alternatively you can find the studs with an electronic stud detector. If you are buying one of these, get one which detects metal (useful for finding plumbing and other services in the wall and/or power cables). Once you have found a stud, mark its center and screw your fixture onto the wall with wood screws. Plasterboard is generally 13 mm (1/2 inch) to 16 mm (5/8 inch) thick, so make sure you size the length of screws appropriately. i.e. allow for the thickness of the plasterboard and the fixture, with 40 mm (1 1/2 inch) of screw thread actually screwing into the stud.
Mounting on Masonry Walls
Masonry includes concrete blocks, bricks, solid concrete wall, stone and aerated concrete blocks.
If the wall is of solid construction you must use plastic screw anchors also known as wall plugs. The tools required are a cordless or corded, hammer action, power drill and a masonry drill bit. A 1/4 inch (6mm) bit for drilling the holes and 6 mm wall plugs are ideal for mounting shelf brackets. The hole is drilled to adequate depth, the anchor inserted and the fixture screwed onto the wall with 8 or 10 gage (5 or 4mm) diameter screws. 40 to 50 mm (1 1/2 to 2 inch) long screws are fine for most applications. Shorter and smaller diameter screws can be used for lighter loads such as surface boxes for electrical switches and sockets.
Before drilling a wall ensure that you know where cables and pipes are routed. You can buy a voltage detector for detecting the presence of power cables.
To attach a bracket to the wall, first position it against the wall and mark the first hole with a pencil or nail. Don't mark all the holes because if the drilled hole goes off course, or is a little to one side, the other holes will be out of alignment. Drill the hole with a suitable diameter masonry drill bit. Insert the anchor into the hole which you just drilled. Place the bracket against the wall again and line up the center of the anchor in the wall with the hole in the bracket. Mark the next hole and drill it. Repeat for all the holes and finally attach the bracket with wood screws.
If you are mounting shelf brackets, hold the second bracket against the wall and either rest the shelf on the two brackets and level with a spirit level or if the span is short you can just rest the level on the two brackets without the shelf. Mark the top hole in the second bracket, drill the hole, for the screw fitting and then mark and drill the remaining holes as described above. Finally screw the bracket to the wall.
What Screws to Use?
I generally use Spax wood screws or similar. These type of screws have a tip which drills through timber as the screw is driven, making for easier driving. A Philips head allows you to drive the screw with a cordless drill.
Mounting Heavy Loads on Walls - Using Expansion Bolts (Wedge Anchors)
If you need to mount heavy loads on masonry walls, there are a couple of options. You can use expansion bolts (wedge anchors) and these are available in a variety of configurations. The most basic type shown in the photos below has a bolt which screws into an outer sleeve. A suitably sized hole is drilled in a wall (the diameter is usually printed on the anchor) and the expansion part of the fixing is inserted in the hole. The bolt is passed through the fixture being attached to the wall and the bolt tightened with a wrench. The fixing expands and securely grips the side of the hole. You can get these fixings with a hook or eye at the end for attaching cables and ropes etc (e.g. a clothes line). Another type has a nut rather than a bolt head at the end.
Another option for attaching timber beams, fence posts, door frames etc to walls is to use express anchors. These fixings are hollow with a slot in the side and slightly larger than the hole which is drilled for them. When hammered into a hole, they squeeze tight and wedge firmly into position. They can also be used for joining timber as they provide the advantage of a screw, resisting being pulled out, and the convenience of a nail.