DIY: Staining Hardwood Floors
My passion for DIY home projects has greatly increased, due to the availability of home improvement instructions online. While researching information for how to stain a hardwood floor, I came across many different articles, with different pieces of advice.
However, no one website had a full list of instructions for how to stain hardwood, and the processes you must undergo before staining. So, I’ve decided to compile everything into this one article, so anybody else undertaking this task will have a complete list of instructions on carpet removal, sanding, and staining a hardwood floor.
Underneath Your Old Carpet Could be Beautiful Hardwood Flooring
We recently moved into a house that was built in 1952. The previous owner had covered up the beautiful hardwood floors with teal green carpeting. It was beginning to show signs of wear and tear, and despite our best cleaning efforts, it had mangy dirty spots from too much traffic.
Having no experience with this type of flooring, we were a bit leery of how complicated it would be to strip and stain the hardwood flooring. Much to my delight, it was even easier than I expected. By professional standards, I’m not sure how we did.
But, we are extremely happy with the results and love our new flooring. Here are the steps we took to transform the base of our living room from a filthy carpeted mess to glistening, shiny hardwood!
How to Stain a Hardwood Floor
- Remove carpeting (see tips below).
- Sand the floor (see tips for selecting the proper tools).
- Prep the surface (sweep, vacuum, and wash).
- Apply stain (after carefully choosing the right type).
- Apply topcoat.
Find detailed lists of tools you will need, see photos of the work-in-progress and the final product, and price and time estimates of the entire job.
Step 1. Remove Carpeting
If you live in an older house that has carpeting over the hardwood floor, you will of course need to remove the carpeting first. Removing the carpeting and padding is easy—it pulls right up and off the tack strips.
You can pull up a few feet at a time, and slice off chunks with a carpet cutter, then haul each roll outside. We were amazed at the amount of dirt & sand that had accumulated under the carpeting. Gross!
Advice for Removing Tack Strips
Removing the tack strips and carpet staples can be a bit time consuming. You will need a skinny pry bar, a hammer and a flat head screwdriver. The carpet staples can easily be pried up with the flat-head screwdriver (don’t worry too much about scratching up the floor, because sanding will remove damage).
Click here to see a video on how to remove the tack strips with the pry bar. Once the tack strips and staples are removed, you’re ready to begin the process of staining your hardwood floors.
Step 2. Sand the Floor
Time to Complete: 3 Hours for 90 Sq Feet
- Sander Paper
- Respirator Mask
- Large Plastic Drop Cloth
Before you begin, you may want to hang a plastic drop cloth across any adjacent door jams to prevent dust from entering other rooms. Also, cover any items on shelving that you don’t want to get dusty.
You can rent an industrial-sized sander from most home maintenance stores. We got this Square Industrial Sander from Home Depot for a $65 rental fee for 24 hours.
I would definitely suggest using a mid-sized square sander, rather than a full-sized round sander. Square ones allow you to get closer to the wall, and are very easy to control.
Finding the Right Sander
Don’t be intimidated by the tool rental department! I’m a little 5’3" girl who is barely strong enough to open her own Gatorade bottle—yet I had no problems using the sander. Rental counter agents usually provide great service and are more than happy to show you how to use the tools.
In this case, no more than a minute of instruction was needed. However, these sanders normally have a double safety feature to prevent accidental operation, so be sure to ask the rental department how to start the unit.
Applying the sandpaper to the sander is extremely easy. The rental shop will give you a 2” thick pad that adheres to the spikes on the bottom of the sander.
They will then sell you the correct size sandpaper, which will have an adhesive backing. Just remove the adhesive and stick it onto the pad. For a 100 square foot area, you will need approximately 4 sheets of sandpaper.
Selecting Sand Paper Grit:
If you have brand new bare wood (without any previous layers of topcoat or varnish), you will only need to do a light sanding job with 120 grit sandpaper.
If your floors have several layers of old, thick varnish, use 40 grit sandpaper to quickly strip it away. In our case, the floor appeared to have a couple of coats, plus a topcoat. We opted for 60 grit paper. One square of paper stripped away about 25 square feet before we needed to change it out.
In our case, the 60 grit gave a very nice & even texture to the wood. It was a month after I’d finished the project when I learned that you should technically go over it again, using 120 grit paper, for the most even finish. We got lucky because even though we skipped this step, the floors turned out beautifully!
Types of Sandpaper Grit & Their Uses
|40 Grit (Extra Coarse)||60 Grit (Coarse)||80 Grit (Medium)||120 Grit (Fine)|
Strips Hardened Top Coats
Evens Texture of Wood
Strips 1 - 2 Layers of Varnish
Removes Slight Flaws
Strips Heavily Layered Varnish
Strips 2-3 Layers of Varnish
Removes Scratches from Wood
Provides Perfectly Even Finish
How to Sand the Hardwood Floor
Before you begin sanding, apply a respirator mask. The sander we rented didn’t kick up a great deal of dust, but I have sensitive lungs and was very happy to have the mask. Sand the floor in sections, using slow, back-and-forth motions (do not go in circles) until the old varnish is removed and you can see bare wood.
After this process has been completed for the entire floor, sweep up all the dust. Next, go over the hardwood using the 120 grit sand paper, using the same method, until the wood feels soft & uniform in texture.
If you are unable to get into the nooks and crannies of the room using the big industrial sander, you may need to buy a small hand sander to remove varnish along baseboards and in corners. We already had a Makita Hand Sander at home, but you can purchase a decent one for around $50 at home improvement stores, if needed.
Step 3. Sweep, Vacuum, and Wash
Use a broom & dustpan to sweep away the top layer of dust left behind after sanding. Next, go over the floor using a vacuum, to remove any excess. Finally, wash the floor using a *damp mop to get rid of all traces of dust.
DO NOT apply cleaning products or soaps to the floor at this time! They contain chemicals which can interfere with varnish application in the next step. Just use plain old water.
*IMPORTANT Applying water directly to bare wood (which is very porous) can cause water damage and eventual expansion of the wood. Take care to ring out the mop thoroughly before using.
It only needs to be slightly damp to pick up the dust. You will be amazed at how much dust it picks up! Changing the water five or six times for a 100 square foot area is recommended. Allow the floor to dry for at least one hour. We let it dry overnight before proceeding to the next step.
Step 4. Apply Stain to the Hardwood
Now that you’ve got the wood stripped down to its natural state, you need to top it with a stain or sealant. You don’t need to use a colored stain, but most people prefer to, as it enhances the natural color of the wood.
Lighter Stains Show Off the Natural Beauty of the Wood
In our particular case, the type of wood was either Natural Rustic Oak or Pine (am not sure which). We wanted the beauty of the wood to show through—so we opted for a lighter stain with reddish undertones.
We weren’t too concerned about imperfections on each individual piece of wood, as the slight variations give your flooring its “personality.” However, if you’re more interested in a completely uniform look, and covering up the natural color of your wood, opt for a darker color with more saturation.
We purchased Dura Seal Penetrating Finish Stain for Hardwood Floors in #110 Neutral Semi-Gloss. Our original choice was going to be #145 Golden Pecan, but the hardware store was sold out. In hindsight, I’m glad, because I think Golden Pecan would have been a bit too dark.
My suggestion would be to go one color lighter than you think you want (unless you are staining a very dark wood). The color goes on with more pigment than you would think, so take a close look at swatches while you’re in the store.
How to Apply Stain to Hardwood Flooring
First, open all windows & doors so you have good ventilation. Next, apply the disposable plastic gloves. Getting stain on your hands is sticky and time consuming to remove. Shake the Dura Seal thoroughly and fill the paint tray about ¼ of the way full with stain.
You will need lamb's wool or lamb skin applicator to apply the stain. I purchased it from Lowe’s for around $15, but neglected to buy an extension pole. We had a pole at home, but it didn’t fit.
As a result, I had to crawl around the floor holding the applicator by hand. This probably gave me a bit more control than I would’ve had with the extender pole, and it wasn’t overly labor-intensive. But if you decide to go this route, I would highly suggest using knee pads!
Lightly Dab the Stain, Don't Rub
Dab the applicator into the stain, and press it against the empty, ribbed end of the paint tray to remove excess. These applicators are thick and absorb a TON of stain, so just lightly dab the first ½ inch of the applicator into the stain.
Working in 3x3 foot sections, apply the stain to the wood in one fluid motion, going with the grain of the wood. Place the applicator at the top of the three foot square and drag it back toward yourself, while slightly pressing down. Repeat for the entire 3x3 square.
DO NOT rub the stain into place, go back and forth over the same spot more than four times, or go in circular motions. This will result in uneven coloring, and can cause small bubbles to appear.
IMPORTANT!! Within five minutes of completing the first few 3-foot sections, wipe away excess stain with a lint-free towel. This is very important! I originally skipped this step, because it really didn’t look like it was needed.
Well, what happened was the stain started to soak unevenly into the wood and it was looking blotchy. Some areas looked glossy, and others looked dull. Wiping up the top layer with a towel removes any pooling of the stain, and gives you a much more even finish.
If you make this same mistake and neglect to use the towel, you can do some damage control when you apply the second coat. After applying the second layer of stain, go over it with the towel. It will even-up any mistakes from your first coat.
Allow the first coat to dry for four hours before applying the second coat. While applying the second coat, you can lightly go over it with the lint-free towel again, after applying each section. Allow to dry overnight before proceeding to step five.
Step 5: Apply Clear Top Coat
We used Dura Seal Polyurethane Gloss for the topcoat. This is a clear layer that will protect your hardwood floors & give them added shine. You apply it using the exact same method you used for the stain, using a new lambswool applicator.
However, DO NOT go over this layer with the towel. Doing so is unnecessary and will ruin the gloss effect, giving you very dull results. You can do one or two coats, but if you decide to do two, you must wait 12 hours after the initial application.
Polyurethane Gloss is stinky! Make sure the room is well ventilated before you begin and close the heater vents to all other rooms in the house to prevent the transfer of vapors. I would suggest keeping family members & pets out of the area (or out of the entire house if possible) for 12–24 hours after application.
We just got a hotel room for the night and took the cat with us. We have a bunny who couldn’t come along, so we put her in a far bedroom and stuffed a towel under the door. When returned, that room had no odor from the gloss.
Final Results of Hardwood Floor Stain
The before and after picture at the top of the article shows how the new hardwood floor looked, after two coats of stain and one topcoat. Apologies for the bad lighting in the “after” picture. We of course could not put the stand-up lights back in the room until everything dried—so this was AU natural lighting when it was dusk outside.
It is not quite as dark as it appears and we absolutely love the results. Can't wait to do the same for our hallway and family room! Don't let anyone deter you from undertaking this project. It is fun, rewarding, and really not difficult at all!
Brands of Stain for Hardwood Floors
A quick note on selecting the brand of hardwood stain . . . I would highly suggest the Dura Seal brand. Before the hardwood flooring project, we stained the wooden fireplace mantle. We used Minwax Wood Finish in Sedona Red, and it was horrendous!
It stunk so bad (just after staining two shelves) that we had to evacuate the house for a whole day. It refused to dry completely for three days, and it did not provide an evenly glossed finish. The strange part is, Dura Seal is also from the Minwax brand. But Dura Seal is much more user-friendly (albeit harder to find at stores).
The color of the Minwax Finish was pretty, but keep in mind that it is very pigmented! Had we applied this to a light-colored wood, the color would have been incredibly strong. I couldn’t be more thankful that we went with Dura Seal over the Minwax Wood Finish. Both are oil-based stains, which is your best bet for a hardwood floor.
Time Invested, Equipment Needed, and Project Cost
We completed the project over a span of two weeks. With hectic work schedules, we had to do this a little at a time. But here is an overview of how long everything took & how much it cost.
Total Time Invested:
- 1 hour for carpet removal
- 4 hours for staple and tack strip removal
- 4 hours for sanding and cleaning
- 3 hours for staining—2 coats
- 1 hour for application of topcoat
- 24 hours for top coat to dry and ventilate
- Carpet Cutter $20
- Pry Bar $10
- Hammer $5
- Flat Head Screwdriver $5
- Broom & Dust Pan $5
- Mop & Bucket + Water $15
- Industrial Sander Rental $65
- Sand Paper $20
- Lambswool Applicators x 2 $16
- Disposable Plastic Gloves $5
- Hardwood Floor Stain $35
- Polyurethane Top Coat $35
- Paint Tray $5
- Drop Cloth $5
- Knee Pads $10
- Lint Free Towels $5
Total Cost of Project: $261
Would You Take On This Hardwood Floor Project?
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.
© 2014 Ashley Bergin
Michael on April 05, 2020:
Thanks for the breakdown of the cost and equipment required for such a project it's very enlightening and helpful.
Edward Morrison from Califonia on August 20, 2018:
What stain or sealer do I use to refinish hardwood floors?
FlourishAnyway from USA on May 04, 2018:
I need to either do this or hire someone to do it. I’m impressed with the job you did. Love the results and the photo of your cat relaxing in the hotel room.
Ashley Bergin (author) from san francisco on April 09, 2018:
Thanks for reading! The area was approximately 35 feet long x 12 feet wide (so around 420 square feet were stained in the 3 hours).
I saw in your other message you were also wondering about pet stains… We didn’t have any in this portion, BUT when we pulled up hallway carpeting a few months later, we discovered a few black spots that were suspected pet urine stains. I had some gel bleach on hand, called Cloralen. I applied it to the spots and let it sit over night, then when I rinsed it away and re-sanded using the Makita Hand Sander, the spots disappeared. Hopefully this works for you! I’ve also heard that using white vinegar or high strength hydrogen peroxide works, however I haven’t tried those options. Best of luck on your project :)
Julia on April 07, 2018:
How many SF did you stain per hour? Or in your 3 hours?
Ashley Bergin (author) from san francisco on February 16, 2018:
Thank you for the info! The only masks I found were those to filters out dust (during sanding)... for future projects I will definitely seek out one that can block vapors.
Ashley Bergin (author) from san francisco on February 16, 2018:
Great point! I did notice bubbles, and let the tray sit for about 10 minutes until they dissipated. The can had such a small opening that it couldn't fit a stir stick - but I probably should've transferred it to a different container & then stirred. Thanks for reading & commenting! :)
Once Is Happenstance on February 15, 2018:
Regarding your comments about the odor levels of stain: stain releases extremely dangerous vapors, known as VOC. It is imperative to use a face mask that can filter out organic vapors (‘bout $30 at home supply stores). That’s why you were feeling ill while using the stain. Just want all your readers to be safe! Even low VOC stain is dangerous for projects as large as a floor.
Jack LeLane on February 06, 2018:
Great article, thanks for the information. One edit I would make is:
"Shake the Dura Seal thoroughly & fill the paint tray about ¼ of the way full with stain."
Definitely don't want to shake a can of stain, it introduces air bubbles into it, you're supposed to stir it always.
Judy on October 20, 2017:
Loved your straight forward easy to understand approach. Now looking forward to my own project with a supply list and costs in hand thanks to your great article.
Randi on August 21, 2017:
Where do you buy the dura seal stain? And top clear coat?
K345 on June 27, 2017:
Great step-by-step. There are many articles on this and a variety of materials, approaches.
Looks like oak. Not sure about cleaning with water after sanding, maybe use a cloth with mineral spirits after vacuuming well. (Set that cloth opened outside to dry when finished.) Water raises the grain. Also, maybe satin or semi-gloss finish to show fewer marks. The stain blotchiness dissipates as it dries, keep the coats thin and wipe away excess. I use natural finish that has a little color but not much. The poly will give the wood warmth by itself and it does change over time. Stir and pour the polyurethane gently to avoid bubbles. And yeah sand lightly between coats of poly. Should do three coats of poly. Fan in window facing out to exhaust. And hey, don't worry if you have imperfections because you'll do it again in 10 years or less in high traffic areas, though it's quicker with less sanding ;)
Diane Thomas on February 24, 2017:
I have done hardwood floors before. I didn't know some of the steps that were used here but I will use them next time
Howard Mcfarland on February 17, 2017:
email@example.com. If we want to go a second or even third coat of poly should we lightly sand after the previous coat?