The Best Hand Tools for Furniture Repair and Restoration
Professionals in all trades share one secret: the right tools make the job easier and quicker and do the work better. Furniture restoration is no different. It will pay you handsomely in the long run to acquite the right tools. Fortunately, it won't cost an arm and a leg to add to your present tool collection, but there will be some expense. You need to buy good tools only once, and you can amortize their cost over a large number of jobs.
If you find need for an unusual and
expensive tool that you won't use often, you can rent it for a couple
of days. An example might be large bar clamps, used to span big work
such as a dining room table. The job might call for three or four of
these - a large investment. I have found clamps such as these in most
rental shops when I needed them.
Some of the tools I list may surprise you - cotton swabs, wooden toothpicks, tongue depressors, emery boards. One doesn't usually think of them as tools. But when you get down to the fine repair and refinishing work, these, along with a thine-bladed pocket knife, will probably serve you better than some expensive substitutes you could buy.
Go over the following list and note the tools you already have. Then list those you need to add to your armory. If the want list appears long, just remember that these can be bought as you need them. You don't have to get them all at once. Don't buy a doweling jig, for example, unless the present project calls for adding or replacing dowels.
Hammers / Mallets
Hammers are not a big item in furniture restoration, since few if any joints require nailing. However, three types come in handy.
Standard Claw Hammers - The best quality claw hammers are drop forged and have hickory handles. Look at the claw before you buy. It should have fine inside edges that will slide under the head of a nail easily, and the curve of the claw should be sufficient to provide good leverage. Claw hammers come in a variety of weights, starting at 7 ounces. The best all-around sizes are 13 or 16 ounces.
Rubber mallet - The rubber mallet is one of the handiest tools to have because it enables you to pound on furniture parts without denting or marring them. It is ideal for use in knocking furniture apart before regluing and for tapping newly glued joints firmly together.
Wooden mallet - A wooden mallet is not a real necessity but is handy when you chisel wood. Tapping the chisel with the wooden head saves wear and tear on the chisel handle.
Magnetic tack hammer - The other hammer you might need is the magnetic tack hammer. This is a thin-nosed light hammer with a magnetic head, good for reupholstery work. The magnetic head holds the tack upright as you drive it, so that you can tack with one hand. Because of the narrow construction of the head, this hammer is good for getting into tight places where other hammers can't go, so you'll find other uses for it beyond upholstering. The head will retain its magnetism for a long period if you keep a metal washer on the face when the hammer isn't in use.
You'll find mostly large screws used in furniture, notably in corner blocks and braces on chairs and tables, so you should have a good collection of large-bladed screwdrivers.
The secret in using a screwdriver is to match the width of the blade to the slot on the screw. A blade that is smaller than the slot won't provide the leverage you need to turn the screw in or out easily. A blade that is only half the size of the slot may bend under the pressure you apply or may damage the slot in the screw. Your best buy is a matched set of good-quality steel screwdrivers, with handles large enough to allow a comfortable grip. There are a good many cheap screwdrivers available, but it is best to avoid these "bargain." Good ones will last longer and provide much more comfort.
You won't need screwdrivers with Phillips heads for wooden furniture, but to work with metal units, you would need several sizes.
In those rare instances when you use nails in furniture restoration, you want to hide all traces of them. This is done by countersinking the nailhead and then filling the hole with wood putty. To countersink a nail, use a nailset to tap the nail a sixteenth of an inch or so below the wood surface. Nailsets are more frequently used to drive out the metal pins used in some furniture in order to reinforce dowel joints.
Most sawing in restoration is small work and requires a smooth cut. The best handsaw for the purpose is a small backsaw, a square-ended saw with fine teeth. A backsaw also can be used with a small miter box to make angular cuts.
On occasion, there are uses for a coping saw. If you need to cut a new
chair splat to replace one that was broken, the coping or scroll saw
would do the job. A splat, incidentally, is the wide centerpiece in the
back of a wooden chair, frequently made with eye-pleasing curves. To
cut a new splat, trace the design on a hardwood board of the proper
thickness, then cut along the pencil line with the coping saw.
It is difficult to make a continuous smooth cut with a handheld coping saw. The job goes faster and better with an electric scroll saw or with a sabre saw. But you can use the handsaw if a motorized unit isn't available. It will take a considerable amount of sanding, however, to finish the splat edge smoothly after cutting with a handheld coping saw.
For furniture work, mount the blade in the coping saw with the teeth pointing toward the handle, so that the cutting is done on the pull stroke. This produces smoother cuts.
Good, sharp wood chisels are used in a number of ways in furniture work. You'll cut recesses for the installation of hinges and other hardware, or make dovetail or mortise-and-tenon joints with them. Have several chisels in your kit, the best widths being 1/4-, 1/2-, and 3/4-inch. Resist any temptation to use the chisels for anything but cutting wood, or you may ruin the fine cutting edges.
Use a mallet or light hammer to drive chisels when cutting, and always make a series of light, thin cuts rather than fewer but deeper cuts. The light cuts are much easier to control. Begin by making vertical cuts across the area to provide a straight finished edge. Then shave out the wood between the vertical cuts to the needed depth. Make all cuts with the grain of the wood. Have the beveled sideof the chisel face up for shallow cuts, and beveled side down for making deeper cuts.
Practice using the chisel if you have never cut with one before. Clamp an old board to your workbench and try different cuts. Practice controlling the work, making just the cut you need. Keep at it until you feel secure in your ability to cut the right amount at the right depth. Then you can go to your project confident of your ability to do the job. One thing about chiseling: once you have made a cut that is too deep, repair work is difficult. It is better to make a number of thin cuts, even though it takes time, than to repair a badly chewed, deep cut.
No tools are more important to the furniture restorer than clamps. Make it a basic rule from the beginning to clamp every glue job, no matter how big or small. Then you will make neat, successful glue joints every time.
There are four basic types of clamps at your hardware store, and you'll need all of them in a variety of sizes if you do much restoring.
Hand screws - These are the traditional wooden-jawed clamps furniture makers have been using for centuries. They consist of two blocks of shaped hardwood, with two steel, wood-handled clamping screws running through them. To tighten the clamp, you turn the screws. Because the clamping screws are mounted in pivots, the jaws can be set at any desired angle. These come in all sizes, from miniature for modeling work, to the big ones with jaws which open to 14 inches. A good basic starter group might include a 3- or 4-inch and an 8- to 10-inch model.
Bar and pipe clamps - These are called furniture clamps in some tool catalogs. They consist of two movable metal jaws, one of which has a built-in clamping screw, fitted over either a long steel bar or a long pipe. They are used to span big work such as table tops, the seat of a chair, or the side of a cabinet. You can buy them in lengths from 12 to 48 inches. I have found the longer lengths most practical, because even the 48-inch clamp can be fitted to work as 12 inches - though sometimes fitting larger clamps to smaller work is clumsy. For big gluing jobs, you may need as many as three or four at a time; two is a minimum for most shops.
Strap and web clamps - Some furniture workers think these are the handiest tools in the shop. They are inexpensive and often can be made to do the work of the more costly hand screws and bar clamps. Literally, strap and web clamps are just tourniquets applied to furniture.
The clamps you buy consist of a fabric strap fitted with a metal clamp body. Put the strap around the work to be clamped, then tighten it by pulling the strap through, not unlike the way you tighten an airplane seat belt. Most clamp bodies are made so you can do the final tightening by turning a nut on the side of the body with a small wrench. Most straps are 12 to 15 feet long, so they can go around big work.
I often improvise my own strap clamps, using ordinary clothesline rope and a long screwdriver. The result is not an elegant tool, but it works. Just wrap the clothesline several times around the work to be clamped. Tie the loose ends together. Then insert the screwdriver between strands of the rope and twist to tighten, (like a tourniquet). When the rope is tight enough, tuck the handle of the screwdriver under the nearest part of the work so that the rope is held at the right tension. One word of caution: don't twist the rope too tight or it may break. Just make it tight enough to hold the glued parts together.
C-clamps - The C-clamp is shaped like the letter C, with the open mouth of the letter used for clamping. The clamping surfaces are small metal pads, adjusted by turning a screw handle, which moves the lower pad. C-clamps are available with jaw openings from one to eight inches or more. It is best to buy the sizes you need for each job as required instead of trying to purchase a whole collection immediately.
Always insert pieces of scrap wood between the work and the metal pads of C-clamps before tightening. Otherwise the pads will make ugly dents in the surface of the furniture.
Other clamping devices - I have also used rubber bands and clothespins for small jobs.
Many pieces of furniture have parts joined by dowels - wooden pegs that fit into holes drilled in each of the joined pieces. Dowel joints are strong, neat and long-lasting, and eliminate the need for screws. To do dowel joining, you need a dowel jig. Basically each type positions the drill in the proper place on the pieces to be joined, so that the holes are perfectly aligned after drilling. It is nearly impossible to make a precise dowel joint without the jig, which is a worthwhile investment if you plan to do much furniture work. Each brand is slightly different, so follow the instructions that come with the one you buy.
Buy ready-made hardwood dowels that come grooved to take glue. After drilling the holes, coat the dowels with glue. Tap them into the holes in one piece. Then join the pieces by fitting the second piece over the dowels. Tap the pieces together and clamp until the glue dries.
You probably already own the standard pliers, called slip joint pliers. In addition, two other types come in handy from time to time. One is the long-nosed pliers, for working in tight places. The other is end-cutting pliers, which you use to pull nails or cut off the heads of nails. Don't buy either of these immediately, because you will use them infrequently. But keep them in mind, because there are rare moments when no other tool will do.
A rule, of course, is a device for measuring, and you need one constantly to measure the work. Three types are helpful in doing good furniture work: the folding rule; the steel tape rule; and the try-square, commonly known as the T-square.
The folding rule is the most convenient for general measurements, such as the inside of a drawer or cabinet. The T-square is held against the outside of a cabinet, drawer or other square construction to show wheter or not the corners are truly square.
Another measurement tool which you might use from time to time is the carpenter's level. It is sued to determine whether cabinet sides are plumb and tops are level.
Once in a while you may find uses for a plane when making furniture parts, but I have found that need infrequent, so I don't recommend that you buy one.