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Troubleshooting an Electric Baseboard Heater

Bert spent 25 years working as a home-improvement and residential construction contractor in central Florida.

Electric baseboard heaters provide instant heat.

Electric baseboard heaters provide instant heat.

Homes without a centralized heating system often have electric baseboard heaters spread throughout the house. Even during normal operation, an electric baseboard heater takes a lot of abuse. Anything from carbon buildup between its thermostat's contacts to a loose electrical connection in the circuit-breaker panel can cause system failure. Troubleshooting the baseboard heater's electric circuit pinpoints the exact fault.

The baseboard heater's identification label (usually located on a label inside one of the electrical compartments) lists the heater's manufacturer, the model and serial numbers, and gives the individual heater's electrical requirements. Installers use this information to determine the correct wire and circuit-breaker size. Replacement units should have compatible ratings.

Keeping a baseboard heater on a bare wall limits fire danger.

Keeping a baseboard heater on a bare wall limits fire danger.

How an Electric Baseboard Heater Works

Before a technician can troubleshoot an electric baseboard heater, he must understand it. The system starts inside the home's electric service panel with a circuit breaker. A set of wires run from the circuit breaker to either a wall-mounted or a built-in thermostat. When the thermostat detects a heating demand, its contacts close. This allows the electricity to pass on to the high-limit switch, mounted inside the baseboard heater's electrical-connection compartment. A high-limit switch protects the system from overheating. As long as the baseboard heater's temperature remains within tolerance, the high-limit switch remains closed, allowing continuity between the limit switch's wire terminals. Electric current then energizes the element, creating heat.

Most baseboard heaters operate on a dedicated 240-volt circuit and utilize a double-pole thermostat. A dedicated circuit powers one device. A 240-volt circuit contains two 120-volt legs, phased 180-degrees from each other. The actual voltage at the home depends on the electric company's output, transmission resistance and the home's distance from the electric plant. A double-pole thermostat has two sets of contact points; one set for each leg. A single pole thermostat has one set of contact points and a solid buss bar between the second leg's wire terminals. If a 240-volt baseboard heater uses a single-pole thermostat, the entire circuit remains live at all times.

A home's electric-service panel contains the baseboard heater's circuit breaker.

A home's electric-service panel contains the baseboard heater's circuit breaker.

The Baseboard Heater's Circuit Breaker Trips Instantly

When a circuit breaker trips instantly, part of the electric circuit contains a short. This type of issue usually leaves some sort of visual evidence, such as a burnt wire terminal. Turn the circuit breaker to the "Off" position; for safety's sake, never rely on the tripped position as a disconnect. Open up the baseboard heater's electrical compartments and inspect each part and its wire connections. Follow the wire between the electric-service panel and the thermostat, looking for any kind of damage. Pay special attention to the wire staples. The staples should hug the wire's sheathing, not crush it. A staple install too tightly can damage a wire strand's insulation, which leads to overheating.

Sometimes an electrical short develops inside a component and does not have visual evidence. Technicians find these shorts with a multimeter. Remove the wires from the thermostat's line leads. Turn a multimeter to its resistance mode. Check for continuity between the set of wires leading to the service panel. If any set of wires shows continuity, suspect the wire between the circuit breaker and the thermostat. If not, reconnect the thermostat's line leads.

Disconnect the baseboard-heater's thermostat load leads. Turn the thermostat to its hottest position. Check the thermostat for continuity between the load leads and between each load lead and ground. If the meter shows any continuity, replace the thermostat. Test the limit switches and elements, using the same method. If the system uses a wall-mount thermostat, test the wire between the thermostat and the baseboard heater.

Circuit breakers are brand and type specific.

Circuit breakers are brand and type specific.

Baseboard Heaters That Work for a Short Period Before Tripping the Circuit Breaker

Was the malfunctioning baseboard heater or its circuit breaker recently replaced? If so, use the units' identification stickers to verify the new heater's element matches the old one. A larger heater often requires thicker gauge wire and a circuit breaker with a higher amperage. Generally, baseboard heaters up to 4000 watts use 12-gauge wire with a 20-amp circuit breaker and baseboard heaters over 4000 watts require 10-gauge wire and a 30-amp circuit breaker.

Does the circuit breaker feel hot? If so, calculate the circuit's total amperage load and verify the circuit breaker meets the minimal rating. The circuit breaker should exceed the load total by 125 percent. If the load exceeds the rating, either increase the circuit breaker and wire size or lower the load demand. Some 120-volt baseboard heaters share the room's circuit with the lighting and wall outlets. If so, add the outlet's typical power usage to the heater's load rating. A 240-volt system usually operates on its own circuit and does not have this issue. Check for a loose wire connection throughout the system. Let the circuit breaker cool down and reset the breaker's toggle switch. If the problem persists, replace the circuit breaker.

The Baseboard Heater Will Not Turn On

When an electric baseboard heater's thermostat turns on, the heater's circuit closes and its element energizes. A fault anywhere in the circuit opens the pathway, turning off the element. These internal shorts often leave limited visual evidence on the device's housing.

Open the home's electrical-service panel. Flip the appropriate circuit breaker to the "On" position. Turn a multimeter to the VAC position. If the system uses a double-throw circuit breaker, place a probe on each wire terminal. If the system uses a single-throw breaker, place one probe on the wire terminal and the other probe on the service panel's ground buss. Read the meter. A functioning single-throw circuit breaker should read about 120-VAC and a working double-throw breaker should transmit roughly 240-VAC. If the meter reads 0-VAC, replace the breaker. If a double-throw breaker reads about 120-VAC, replace the breaker.

Turn off the system's circuit breaker. Open the baseboard heater's thermostat compartment. Remove the thermostat. Turn the thermostat to its highest temperature setting. Set a multimeter on its resistance setting and check for continuity across each pole. If the thermostat fails to show continuity across either pole, replace it with an approved model. Hold the multimeter probes against one set of the baseboard-heater thermostat leads. Maintain contact while turning the thermostat to its lowest temperature setting. The thermostat should lose continuity when the thermostat no longer detects a need; the ambient temperature exceeds the thermostat's setting. Repeat this across the second pole, if applicable. Replace the thermostat if it fails any test.

troubleshooting-an-electric-baseboard-heater

Remove the wire connectors from the thermal limit switch's two wire terminals. Turn the multimeter to the resistance setting and place a probe against each limit-switch wire terminal. The meter should show continuity. If not, replace the device. Under normal operating conditions, a thermal-limit switch remains in the closed position. Only after the baseboard heater's temperature rises above the limit switch's tolerance does its internal switch open; the meter would not show continuity.

Disconnect the leads from the element's terminals. Test the element for continuity, using the multimeter. The element should show continuity cross its terminals. If not, the element has failed. If the element has failed, consider replacing the entire unit. The low cost of a new unit usually does not exceed a replacement element's price by very much.

Electric Baseboard Heater That Does Not Turn Off

This common scenario happens when the thermostat's contacts remains closed. Eventually the limit switch will open and turn off the heater until the housing's temperature drops into tolerance. This turns the heater back on, possibly giving the impression that the thermostat functions randomly. A light tap on the thermostat may temporarily release the stuck internal part; however, this will not permanently fix the issue. Replace the thermostat with an applicable replacement part as soon as possible.

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.

Questions & Answers

Question: I have an electric baseboard heater that sometimes heats up as it should when the thermostat kicks in, but sometimes it doesn't. The thermostat kicks on when it should, but the heater rarely heats up anymore except occasionally. It works fine for a while; then it stops working again. At no time does it trip the circuit breaker though. What is the problem?

Answer: Make sure all electrical connections are good. If that doesn't solve the problem, use a multi-meter to find the faulty part.

Question: My baseboard heater turns on but is only warm and does not heat up. What could the problem be?

Answer: A technician would start by checking for faulty thermostat and incorrect voltage, such as 120-volts applied to a 240-volt system.

Question: Why do I have to turn my heater dial 3/4 to the highest temp just to turn on?

Answer: Inspect the thermostat.

Question: I have three baseboard heaters on one 240V circuit (bathroom and two bedrooms). The second bedroom heater only works when the master bedroom thermostat is turned on. What could be the problem?

Answer: It sounds like the second bedroom receives power from the load side of the master's thermostat instead of directly from the circuit breaker. This would make the second baseboard heater dependent on the master thermostat.

Question: I had a power outage and now my electric baseboard heaters will not turn on. I changed the heater and thermostat. What can cause this?

Answer: You have an electrical fault somewhere. It could be anything from a tripped circuit breaker to a short in the heater coil. A technician would use a voltmeter and test everything, starting at the circuit breaker. Otherwise you end up changing parts needlessly.

Question: I have a new baseboard heater, thermostat and 20 amp breaker. My problem is, why won't the baseboard heater get hot with the thermostat? If I hook it up without the thermostat, the heater gets hot. But when I hook up a thermostat with the power line going to the top two wires and then the bottom two wires going out to my baseboard heater, the heater will not get hot.

Answer: Assuming you wired the thermostat according to the manufacturer's instructions, it appears you have a faulty thermostat.

Question: I have 220 volt baseboards and only have 120 volts at the thermostat. What can be wrong? I verified the circuit breaker and have 220v.

Answer: You have a break in one leg of the power supply somewhere between the circuit breaker lugs and the thermostat. Visually inspect the wire, looking for burnt or damaged sheathing. If nothing obvious stands out, remove the circuit breaker. Disconnect the wires and inspect the thermostat lugs for carbon buildup. If the circuit breaker passed, check the wire set's continuity. It is easy to do this if you twist all three wires in the wire set together at the circuit breaker's panel box, then test for continuity at the thermostat using the ground wire as the control wire. If one power wire does not show continuity, you likely need to replace the wire set.

Question: I have an electric baseboard heater that when turned off keeps heating, could it need a new thermostat or is it something else?

Answer: It does sound like a faulty thermostat. Voltage should not pass through a thermostat set to the OFF position.

Question: I recently began using a room with two Marley baseboard heaters that were installed in October of 2016. Turning the switch/dial to OFF no longer works, so the small room is always sweltering and wasting energy (and money). I am not handy, so I have no idea what to do. Can you offer any guidance?

Answer: You should contact the contractor that installed the heater, then ask about the warranty and perhaps a service call.

Question: Duplex built 1957- when the baseboard heater is OFF it will come on when it's cold in the unit. Is that normal? If it's OFF it should stay OFF right or wrong?

Answer: Yes it should stay off.

Question: I have a line voltage thermostat that doesn’t turn on, but I have the correct voltage at thermostat and baseboard heater. I brought the thermostat back home to inspect, and it worked perfectly. If I have correct voltage and thermostat worked on another circuit what could it possibly be?

Answer: Turn off the electricity to the system and perform a continuity test. I would start at the thermostat---disconnect the wires on the thermostat's load side and test for continuity across the entire heater. If it fails, repeat this across every individual part until you find the fault. This test should include the wires. If the system has the proper voltage and continuity, it will turn on.

Question: I have taken the baseboard heaters out, but I would like to remove the thermostat from the wall but I don't know how to tell if the wire is hot or not. How would I go about testing if a wire is hot?

Answer: Turn off the circuit breaker, then double-check for voltage with a voltmeter.

© 2014 Bert Holopaw

Comments

Robert on August 11, 2020:

I have a 240v baseboard heater. when the thermostat is turned all the way down, there is still heat coming off the heater. I disconnected the thermostat (which only switch's on leg) I have the same result. Measured 120v at the heater never fully turns off. any suggestions?

Bert Holopaw (author) on February 01, 2020:

You should contact the installer. It looks like you have a loose wire connection.

David McLinden on January 31, 2020:

I turned down thermostat on recently installed baseboard heater. Not long after I saw a significant spark from power supply end of heater

ryan1973 on November 24, 2019:

I have a 240 volt baseboard controlled by a thermostat. when the thermostat is off the heat is off. when the thermostat is between 30 degrees and 70 degrees the baseboard heats up on it's own at 1/2 power or 120 volts and wont turn off. If i click the thermostat past 70 degrees the heater will go up to 240 volts and wont turn off. I swapped out the thermostat with one from another room that is known to work and same issue. what could it be?

Rich on November 23, 2019:

2500. Watt electric baseboard heater doesn't get hot.

Thermostat works. Both hot wires test 120v to ground, 240v between them. Continuity all the way thru heater. Heat coil has resistance of 23 Ohms. Unit does not produce ANY heat, and is pulling ZERO Amps. I can't figure it out. Any ideas? Thanks.