Types of Interior Design Drafting Tools
With the advent of computer-aided design (CAD), why in the world would an interior designer need to be proficient in hand drafting? Simply put, hand drafting is considered the foundation of interior design theory. Students are required to learn this technique before their introduction to CAD software.
Types of Hand Drafting
There are three categories of drawings crucial to interior designers: process drawings (rough images and preliminary sketches), construction drawings (drafted drawings, floor plans, elevations) and presentation drawings (formal sketches, three-dimensional views).
Within the category of hand-drafted drawings, there are two distinct types: technical sketches and mechanical drafting. An interior designer must have the ability to quickly create technical sketches during the preliminary and initial design phases to convey design ideas to others.
A mechanical draft is the next step that moves a design idea from the development to implementation phase. It is a much more advanced and refined drawing style that takes the design project to the next level. Mechanical drawings are created only after a final design is agreed upon.
While the basic pencil is required to create the actual drawing, interior designers need a number of other specialized drafting tools to help bring their designs to life.
A compass (a.k.a. pair of compasses) is a common drafting tool used to draw circles and arcs. The compass is a V-shaped device comprised of two rigid legs, one with a sharp end tip and the other that accommodates a pencil. The pointed tip is used to pivot on the drawing surface as the pencil leg marks a radius or arc. Adjust the radius by changing the angle of the hinge.
Drafting Boards and Tables
When doing interior design drafting, it is necessary to have a proper work surface. A portable drafting board has a smooth, level surface to accommodate large sheets of paper for mechanical drawings. The sheets are secured to the surface to prevent shifting during work.
This type of board can be used on most tables or countertops and is less expensive than a drafting table. Drafting tables typically have an adjustable top or legs to create an angled drawing surface. Many also feature a built-in straight edge.
A T-square is a necessity to interior designers. It consists of a longer blade and a shorter strip, known as the head. The blade is attached at a right angle to the head. They come in sizes that range from 15- to 72-inches long. T-squares can be used to draw straight lines and right angles.
A straight edge is just as the name implies. It is employed to draw straight horizontal lines. The straight blade attaches to the edge of the drafting board or table and can be moved up and down the board. The blade locks into position to create perfectly straight lines on flat or angled work surfaces.
Interior designers often need to draw precise parallel lines. That can be a difficult task without a parallel ruler. This ruler has two straight blades attached at the ends by hinged arms, which is used to create parallel lines of varying distances from one another.
The drafting machine combines several drafting tools in one. The unit can be purchased as a portable drafting board, or as part of a drafting table system. It features a built-in protractor and two scales (rulers). It moves on a track mechanism across the board surface. A drafting machine costs more than a basic drafting table or board, but saves time and improves the accuracy of mechanical and technical drawings.
Computer Aided Design Software
Today, interior designers use Computer Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) software to create technical and mechanical drawings. The most popular being AutoCAD. It creates 2D and 3D designs and can be used with either Windows and Mac operating systems.
AutoCAD can save an interior designer valuable time when dealing with client changes and multiple design options. Drawings and documentation can be printed for presentations and saved by client and project.
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