Definition and Impact of Sustainable Landscaping

Updated on March 29, 2018
Sustainable Sue profile image

In addition to having a Master's Degree in Sustainable Development, Susette works with water conservation and sustainable landscaping.

Before I started working for Waterwise Consulting in 2007, I'd never heard of a sustainable landscape. Among other things, Waterwise, a water conservation consulting company, conducted workshops in sustainable landscaping for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. When I first started working with them, I attended several of those workshops, learning how to redesign irrigation systems and convert lawn space into native plantings that use less water.

Being a hobby photographer, I couldn't help but wonder if I could take better photos than what they had in their Powerpoint presentations. Yes, a distraction (albeit minor) that actually deepened my interest and eventually gave me an eye for what a sustainable landscape really looks like.

Since then I've conducted workshops and water use surveys, interviewed neighbors and water suppliers, and written several articles, using my own photos as illustrations. Some of those I will share with you here, but first let me give you a basic definition of the term "sustainable landscape."

This sustainable landscape down the street from where I live has set the tone for the entire neighborhood. They were not the first to experiment, but they were the first to go all out, with stone walls and pathways completely replacing their lawn.
This sustainable landscape down the street from where I live has set the tone for the entire neighborhood. They were not the first to experiment, but they were the first to go all out, with stone walls and pathways completely replacing their lawn. | Source

Definition of Sustainable Landscaping

A sustainable landscape is one that conforms to the environment surrounding it, requiring only inputs (e.g. water, fertilizer) that are naturally available, with little or no additional support. It is self-sustaining over long periods of time. It exists in harmony with its local ecosystem––if bad weather hits, or wildfires or rockslides devastate your neighborhood, your garden recovers quickly. The landscape is diverse enough to remain resilient and productive indefinitely.

When evaluating your landscape for sustainability, there are three main areas to consider: How it responds to the local ecology (ecological), how much it costs to maintain (economic), and how it affects your family and neighbors (socio-cultural).

  1. Ecological––How well does your design match the local ecology, utilizing similar plants and mimicking local landforms? You'll want your garden to help feed, and give shade and housing to local birds and insects, as well as humans.
  2. Economic––How much does it cost to maintain your landscape? You'll want it to thrive with available, natural resources, instead of having to spend extra on water or chemicals to be healthy and look good. If you have a landscaper, the landscape should be easy for them to maintain with well paid, but minimal effort.
  3. Socio-cultural––How does the neighborhood like the way it enhances or blends with their yards? Your landscape should reflect what you, your family, and your neighborhood like best about your local environment.

I had fun climbing the hills and hiking the canyons, looking to see what the natural environment in my area looked like. Some of the photos you'll see below show local wildflowers and land forms that can be mimicked in my neighborhood's landscapes.

Let's look at these pillars separately and I'll give you tips for actions to take, so you can see how well your landscape fits the definition of sustainability.

This drought tolerant parkway looks attractive and easily thrives, in the hot sun of Southern California, with little or no care.
This drought tolerant parkway looks attractive and easily thrives, in the hot sun of Southern California, with little or no care. | Source

Pillar #1––Ecological Sustainability

There is a concept called Low Impact Development (LID) where local environmental factors are prominent considerations when designing a landscape (or a building). Sustainability is an integral part of that––that an environment, planted or natural, should be able to sustain itself over time with a minimal amount of care. This means that one strives to create beauty in the landscape with the lowest possible impact on the natural environment, perhaps even utilizing or mimicking some of the local land forms (like hills and dales).

Some of the environmental factors that affect what will grow in a particular area are sun, water, and soil. But the shape of the land, and the insects and other wildlife in the area, also affect what will grow in your yard. They are, in turn, affected by what you plant there.

I took the photos below in the San Gabriel Mountains above Pasadena CA, near where I live. In spring the hills are covered with wildflowers. Although they are not necessarily the plants one would use in a local landscape, there are related cultivars that do well, but are hardier in one's yard––especially considering that most yards don't have natural soils anymore. Many local plants will not grow in soils that have been enriched with fertilizers.

LID Elements That Can be Applied in Landscape Design

The lay of your yard could match or mimic the region's natural land forms.
The lay of your yard could match or mimic the region's natural land forms. | Source
You could grow lupine and other local flowers or cultivars that thrive naturally in your ecological region.
You could grow lupine and other local flowers or cultivars that thrive naturally in your ecological region. | Source
You could choose plants partly by what they contribute to the health of local insects, animals, and birds.
You could choose plants partly by what they contribute to the health of local insects, animals, and birds. | Source
Rainwater flows down runnels in the sides of hills, then sits in hollows to be absorbed into the ground. The way you lay out your landscape could utilize the rain that comes naturally, without your having to water more.
Rainwater flows down runnels in the sides of hills, then sits in hollows to be absorbed into the ground. The way you lay out your landscape could utilize the rain that comes naturally, without your having to water more. | Source

Landscape Micro-Climates

To prevent a sustainable landscape from being boring, pay attention to the different locations on your property that have their own micro-climates. You can design these sections to look and behave differently from the others, yet still be sustainable. In fact, planting in semi-independent sections that way provides variety in plant material and increases overall sustainability.

Here are some examples of micro-climates:

  • Buildings and trees nearby create shady areas that can support different types of plants than do full sun areas.
  • In a hollow on one side of a fence you may have a water-hungry section of tropical ferns that soaks the soil and creates its own micro-climate on both sides of the fence with richer, wetter soil.
  • Or a former resident may have dumped a sand pile in one corner of the property, changing the soil type and supporting a different type of planting there than elsewhere.

To discover less obvious micro-climates, you'll want to measure soil composition, check sun/shade availability at different times of the day, and look to see how much water each section gets naturally.

Before you plant, either in a micro-climate section or your yard overall, you'll want to list all environmental factors on paper first, to make sure everything is covered––like soil type, amount of sun and shade, water availability, seasonal temperatures. Here are other reminders:

  • What you choose to plant in each section should grow easily there––supporting and being supported by resident insects and small animal life.
  • The soil should be self-sustaining, with plant and animal residue continually building up its quality, even as plant growth uses nutrients from it.
  • Irrigation systems should be minimal and appropriate to the type of planting.
  • Any softscape added, like mulch and leaf cover, should easily bio-degrade and contribute to the health of the clime.
  • And any existing or added hardscape (rocks, concrete, bricks) should play its role in providing shade, shelter, and pockets of extra moisture.

This wisteria is growing over a bus stop that provides a micro-climate for a local bakery. There's just a small piece of poor soil between the bus stop and parking lot, which heats up in full sun, and the wisteria loves it.
This wisteria is growing over a bus stop that provides a micro-climate for a local bakery. There's just a small piece of poor soil between the bus stop and parking lot, which heats up in full sun, and the wisteria loves it. | Source
This microclimate  is formed by the dense canopy of the conifer above it and the lower ground level. It allows for more moisture than normal, which helps daffodils, narcissus, and pansies grow in winter when sunlight is slanted.
This microclimate is formed by the dense canopy of the conifer above it and the lower ground level. It allows for more moisture than normal, which helps daffodils, narcissus, and pansies grow in winter when sunlight is slanted. | Source

Pillar #2––Economic Cost of Landscaping

Planning and planting landscapes is a lot of work. Therefore, before encouraging it, I decided to make sure that the work was really worthwhile. In Southern California we go for drought tolerant landscapes. I'd already noticed that some of the early landscapes grew up to look pretty ugly, and that the nicer ones cost a lot to design and plant. So I did some research on the benefits.

Landscapes and gardens that are NOT sustainable take a lot of extra nurturing––with water, fertilizers, pesticides, replacement plants, and grass seed––which costs extra money and unnecessary time and effort. Sustainable landscapes, on the other hand, are designed to require very little extra nurturing, which should keep the costs and effort of maintenance down. But does it really?

In March 2004, the City of Santa Monica teamed up with Santa Monica College and the Metropolitan Water District to run an experiment. They planted, nurtured, and compared the costs of running a sustainable landscape versus the more traditional, semi-exotic landscape commonly seen in Southern California. They found that, although it did cost more to install the native garden than the traditional garden, those costs were recouped over time. When they compared results in 2013, this is what they discovered:

  • The native garden used 83% less water on average,
  • It generated 56% less green waste,
  • And it required 68% less maintenance.

These charts show the comparison of the native and traditional gardens' use of water, production of green waste, and maintenance requirements.
These charts show the comparison of the native and traditional gardens' use of water, production of green waste, and maintenance requirements. | Source

A native yard reduces the cost of hiring a landscaper and requires no fertilizer, herbicide, or pesticide expenses. Native gardens in wetter country will likely grow their own local grasses, which will reseed themselves. In drier country you can design the garden without grass, thereby also eliminating the cost of weekly mowing and seasonal reseeding, in addition to reducing the cost of water used. These are substantial savings, especially when you consider them over a period of years.

In addition to the financial cost of sustainability, your planning should include the social cost of whether or not your yard "fits" the neighborhood.

Pillar #3––Socio-Cultural Impact of Landscape Design

I walked around my extended neighborhood to see how I felt about the neighbors' gardens, focusing especially on the native and drought tolerant ones. What I noticed is that:

  • Such gardens make my neighborhood more interesting to wander through (or walk my dog).
  • The plantings brighten the neighborhood, making it less brooding and mundane than it used to be.
  • I often meet new neighbors when I'm photographing their yards and they are out working in them.
  • These landscapes give me examples to show my friends who want to change theirs.
  • It makes my neighborhood feel more like Southern California––friendly and open, and blending with the hills.
  • Most of the gardens are fairly new, but they are already starting to attract more bees and some butterflies. As they mature, they'll send out a stronger scent and will attract more of the local fauna.

Here are some questions for you: How do you want your landscape to affect the people around you? Do you want to be seen as conforming or different?

Landscapes in most neighborhoods look pretty similar, based either on the existing climate and what survives it, or on a "look" created by the original developer and maintained over time by the neighborhood's inhabitants.

What is the general style of your neighborhood? How does your landscape fit in? Let's look briefly at some different landscape styles.

A Very Few Landscape Design Styles

English Country Cottage––typified by a cluster of brightly colored, contrasting flowers of different heights mass-planted together.
English Country Cottage––typified by a cluster of brightly colored, contrasting flowers of different heights mass-planted together. | Source
Wildflower Garden––typified by masses of perennial wildflowers, often hybrids, that are natural to the area. This sustainable garden is in Colorado.
Wildflower Garden––typified by masses of perennial wildflowers, often hybrids, that are natural to the area. This sustainable garden is in Colorado. | Source
Golf-Course Mimic––typified by wide expanses of green grass and a few shade trees. Homeowners in California like this one, but it's not sustainable in most parts of the state.
Golf-Course Mimic––typified by wide expanses of green grass and a few shade trees. Homeowners in California like this one, but it's not sustainable in most parts of the state. | Source
Japanese Zen––typified by peaceful, curving shapes of green rolling hills, round-canopied trees and bushes, and bridges over streams of slow-moving koi.
Japanese Zen––typified by peaceful, curving shapes of green rolling hills, round-canopied trees and bushes, and bridges over streams of slow-moving koi. | Source

Neighborhood Landscape Style

Just as every element in your landscape combines to form an overall "style" for your landscape (including areas with micro-climates), so every garden in your neighborhood combines to form an overall "style" for the neighborhood. Therefore, a good landscape designer should address the neighborhood look as a whole first, before planning for an individual yard and its various micro-climates. And a choice should be made about what overall look or "style" is desired.

Common styles chosen in Southern California, not all of them sustainable, are:

  • Exotic (non-native)––the tropical garden in Southern California that also supports our exotic parrot population. Other examples of exotics elsewhere are the English country garden in Kansas, or the Hawaiian flower garden in the desert of Las Vegas.

  • The golf-course mimic––mostly turf with a few trees and flowers, and often a swimming pool or two. Turf (grass) uses more water than any other type of landscape. This is common in SoCal.

  • The conditional garden––drought tolerant when water is hard to find, tropical when water is temporarily in excess. Expensive in its constant changes.

  • The native garden––sustainable over time, based on local plants and supported by bird and insect life and climate. Every region of the world has its own, particular native look.

  • The herb garden––providing food, shelter, and other attractants for animal and insect life.

  • The vegetable garden––primarily growing food for humans.

Each of these styles can be mixed and matched, with a shady downhill spot being planted with ferns and a sunny, dry spot being planted with Mediterranean cultivars; or a flower garden in one area and vegetables in another; or flowers and herbs mixed together in the same location, as long as their growth requirements are the same.

But the one type of garden that is truly sustainable in any area is the native garden––based on local, naturally growing plants (flowers and food) that have adapted over time to the environment's unique weather, soils, and fauna (animal, insect, and bird life).

This cactus/succulent garden reflects the Southwest Desert style, and is wholly appropriate for Southern California. There are quite a few houses in my neighborhood that have elements of this style.
This cactus/succulent garden reflects the Southwest Desert style, and is wholly appropriate for Southern California. There are quite a few houses in my neighborhood that have elements of this style. | Source

Does Your Landscape Match the Neighborhood?

Because one person's landscape can enhance or detract from the overall appearance of a neighborhood, it would be wise for you to engage the neighbors (to a certain extent) in planning. You never know what types of things neighbors have tried before or what they are planning for their own yards currently.

Neighbors could also have ideas, contacts, or resources that could prove helpful in design, and they might even be willing to help out with the labor. At a minimum, neighbors who know what you are doing and who support it, can act as a buffer with other neighbors who might not understand and would worry.

Never underestimate the value of this. Anyone who tries to create a sustainable landscape in a neighborhood that has been deliberately planted and/or developed and maintained in an unsustainable way will be watched––probably talked about or criticized, as well.

At the same time, creating an attractive, sustainable look in your yard that shows how much can be saved in effort, money, and time, could be a great way for you to improve the economics of your neighborhood. Neighbors who recognize that value will support and often mimic your efforts, thereby extending the sustainability of the entire neighborhood, creating great goodwill, and making your own work worthwhile.

This video will give you some basic tips for how to plant a garden that requires little or no maintenance––a sustainable garden that will save you time and money.

Have you ever talked with your neighbors about their landscaping?

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Questions & Answers

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      • Sustainable Sue profile imageAUTHOR

        Susette Horspool 

        3 months ago from Altadena CA, USA

        @Kenneth––I took that top photo out. With the change in format it was blurry, so I don't have one with trees overhanging the road anymore. I hope the one I replaced it with is good enough. :-) I also added a poll at the end. Feel free to vote.

      • profile image

        Kenneth Avery 

        4 years ago

        Wow! Thanks, Sue. I love your work. And I am still asking that you follow me so we can share ideas about hubs and such.

        You are so good at what you do.

      • Sustainable Sue profile imageAUTHOR

        Susette Horspool 

        4 years ago from Altadena CA, USA

        One of my earliest memories is of driving down a street where the trees met in the middle, and the sun streamed through them, turning everything to gold. It was my first memorable introduction to magic. I was only three years old.

        I took all of these photos from the neighborhood where I lived in Pasadena CA, up until a year ago. My current neighborhood is even better. Here, I'll make them bigger for you.

      • kenneth avery profile image

        Kenneth Avery 

        4 years ago from Hamilton, Alabama

        Hi, Sustainable Sue,

        The very top photo is my favorite. I wish I could afford to live in an old south-type home and have a long drive with these trees on each side.

        This is an excellent piece of writing. Amazing, to be quite frank with you.

        I loved every word--and the lay-out was superb. Interesting, in-depth, helpful,

        and very informative. Great job.

        Voted up and all the choices because you deserve it.

        You have such a gift for writing. Just keep writing and good things are bound to happen to you.

        I cordially invite you to read one or two of my hubs, and be one of my followers.

        That would make my day.

        I am so honored to meet you.

        Sincerely,

        Kenneth Avery, Hamilton, Alabama

      • profile image

        Sustainable Landscaping Pro 

        5 years ago

        Great article. I am big believer in sustainable landscaping. I have been reading another blog similar to yours at http://landscaperesource.com/resources/lr-blog/cin... They also have great content on sustainable landscaping.

      • ducktoes profile image

        ducktoes 

        6 years ago from Calgary, Alberta

        This is great. You wrote a lot of good content about landscape design in this hub, put in a lot of work and good photos. Thank you. Here's mine. https://hubpages.com/living/A-Guide-to-Good-Patio-...

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