Why Not to Limb Up Evergreen Trees
Trimming Evergreen Trees
If you're trying to decide whether or not to limb up evergreen trees in your yard, do your homework first. There are a few things that you need to know about evergreens and what it might mean to remove some branches from them. In some cases, this is not a problem, where in others it can harm the tree.
Best Time to Prune
Late winter to early spring is best to keep your tree safe.
When to Prune Evergreen Trees
Before we go into whether or not pruning is even required, first know that the time of year that the pruning is completed is important. For most evergreen trees, the best time to prune is when branches are not actively growing. This will make it much easier to avoid additional damage to tree bark and the likelihood of an unwanted fungal disease goes way down by choosing a slow time of year.
The best time to prune evergreens is from late winter to early spring, well before any new growth will take off for the new season.
Which Evergreen Branches to Prune
Now that you know the best time to prune, let's talk about which branches should be taken. Do not start limbing up the tree before considering this. It is best to leave the branches of an evergreen tree to grow naturally, however, there are some reasons that pruning makes sense.
A newly planted tree is one such occasion. When a new tree is brought home form the nursery, it may have a few branches that are overlapping or growing right next to each other. This tends to happen more often when trees are young than later in life, so removal of such branches is acceptable. This means that another branch will still be growing in that area.
The existence of two leaders at the top of the tree is another case where selective pruning may make sense. It may be worthwhile to wait one more year to see how the tree manages the leaders, however, since one may win the race. If not, removal of the redundant leader can save you from having a "Y" shaped main trunk down the road.
Diseased branches are one more case where cutting may make sense. Cutting the dead end from a branch that is otherwise healthy can actually prevent further damage to the tree.
Should You Limb Up Evergreen Trees?
The answer to this question is usually no. To remove full limbs from an evergreen tree is a very permanent decision that should be made carefully. For many evergreens, especially young pines and spruces of all ages, the limb structure is part of what makes the tree strong. The lower limbs of the tree support the upper limbs in times of sever weather or heavy snow, and their removal can have a permanent effect on the tree.
For aesthetic reasons, these branches are also best left untouched. There is no question that an evergreen tree looks best when grown in a natural state, with branches growing naturally from the ground up. A pine tree will shed some lower branches as it ages all by itself, where a spruce will normally stick close to the ground forever if left uncut. Trees that are limbed up can look anything from odd to plain silly.
If you are considering this pruning technique because a tree was planted in the wrong spot such as right next to a sidewalk or driveway, a better solution may be removal and replanting the area with a proper tree.
Pine vs. Spruce Tree Pruning
There is a difference between how a pine and spruce tree grows, and it matters when pruning. You can tell the difference by looking a the needles.
A pine tree has needles that grow to the same spot, typically with 2-5 needles per group. Branches between these connecting points have no needles at all, except on very young trees, where it is harder to see this pattern. Pine trees often have needles much longer, and softer, than spruce trees. Most pines thin out as they age and sway in the breeze. When pruning a pine tree, do not prune further than the last set of needles, preferably just past a noticeable bud that will develop new needles to hide the cut. Any branch that is pruned inside of the last needles will not regrow and might as well be pruned to within an inch or two from the main trunk.
A spruce tree has needles that are stiff and shorter. The needles of a spruce tree appear all along the stem, offering a very full appearance. Until a spruce tree is old or unless it is grown in a wooded area, it is usually dense and difficult or impossible to see through to the other side. When pruning a spruce tree, prune to a point just above a healthy branch that is covered in needles. From this point, the tree will continue to grow and eventually cover the cut. Pruning back to the main trunk is not a cut that the tree can reproduce a branch from, so think twice before making this choice.
Needles grow to certain points
Needles continue along branch
Needles are longer and softer
Needles are shorter and stiff
Tree sways in the breeze
Tree is quite rigid
You can usually see through it
Dense branches are difficult to see through
How to Prune Diseased Evergreen Branches
If you must prune a branch because disease has struck, follow these tips. First, remove the entire dead area plus at least a few inches more for good measure, as the end of the branch that still looks healthy may be infected.
Keep your cutting tools clean between cuts, since they can easily spread the disease to other areas of the tree. Any tool should be rinsed in household bleach between every cut to avoid further damage to an otherwise healthy branch.
Get the cut branches away from the tree at once and into a burn pile or to the curb to be taken away.
If branches of any significance must be cut, make three separate cuts to take the branch so the bark will not be damaged. The first cut should be from the bottom and about a third of the way through the branch. If you are removing the entire branch, keep this cut a foot or so from the main trunk. The second cut should be from the top just beyond the first cut. This cut is made until the branch falls off. Finally, a third cut should be made to clean up the branch and leave it with one clean cut. If this cut is near the main trunk, do not cut into the branch collar, or that raised area connected to the trunk. Instead, cut just beyond it.
Unless you have dead or crossed branches, or a tree growing into something it shouldn't, pruning is something that is probably not needed and not advised. Leaving your evergreen tree to grow in it's natural shape will almost certainly look better in the long run, and may very well make the tree healthier over time.
If you must prune, do it in the right season unless storm damage forces your hand, disinfect cutting tools after each branch is cut, and try to cut just above a healthy bud. By following these tips, your tree will have a chance to fill in the space over time.