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The 2 Most Dangerous Spiders in Florida

Updated on October 4, 2016
PaulGoodman67 profile image

Paul graduated from university in 1987. He has done a variety of jobs, including librarian and researcher. He currently lives in Florida.

A brown recluse beside an American penny, showing the size of the spider.  The brown recluse is small but packs a venomous bite that can land you in hospital.  Fortunately, they are not native to Florida and only occasionally found in the state.
A brown recluse beside an American penny, showing the size of the spider. The brown recluse is small but packs a venomous bite that can land you in hospital. Fortunately, they are not native to Florida and only occasionally found in the state. | Source

There are many different types of spider in Florida. Some of them, such as golden orb spiders, are mildly venomous and have painful bites, but their venom is too weak to be life-threatening to human beings (although in rare circumstances, it can cause allergic reactions).

The most dangerous spiders in Florida belong to one of two types: they are basically either a species of widow spider, or a species of recluse spider. These are the only two types of spider found in Florida that have venom powerful enough to be dangerous to people.

You can minimize the chances of being bitten by being aware of the types of places where both types of spider might be found, and also by taking appropriate precautions, such as wearing gloves when reaching into recesses and places that you can’t see, where spiders might be hiding. Both types of spider can take up residence in old clothing that you haven’t worn for a long time.

Other places where you should exercise caution is reaching into storage boxes, onto shelves in sheds, or when grabbing bundles of firewood – essentially places where you can’t see where you are putting your hands.

A female southern black widow with its distinctive red hourglass marking.  Despite being highly venomous, bites from female widows are rarely fatal.  These spiders feed on a variety of insects, as well as woodlice and other spiders.
A female southern black widow with its distinctive red hourglass marking. Despite being highly venomous, bites from female widows are rarely fatal. These spiders feed on a variety of insects, as well as woodlice and other spiders. | Source

Widow Spiders

There are 4 species of widow spider that you might find in Florida, three of them native and one of them introduced. The fours species are: the southern black widow (Latrodectus mactan); the northern black widow (Latrodectus various); the red widow (Latrodectus bishopi); and the brown widow (Latrodectus geometricus).

Typically, a female widow spider has a glossy, jet black body and a bright red mark on the underside of her abdomen that is shaped like an hourglass. The males are usually gray or brown. The females are much bigger than the males, with the females measuring around 1.5 inches and the males being only a quarter of the size.

Widow spiders are nocturnal and build irregular, tangled, three dimensional webs, where they rest during the daytime. Widows will often hang upside down near the center of the web, until they detect an insect getting caught (usually by sensing vibration, rather than by sight), when they will run over and bite the insect, then cover it in silk.

The female widow is the most poisonous of the two genders, as its venom sacs are much bigger. The bite of the male is not generally considered to be dangerous.

Symptoms of a Widow Bite

  • Symptoms generally start between one and three hours after the bite
  • They can include: intense pain, muscle cramps, nausea, sweating, and vomiting.
  • The venom initially just effects the area of the bite, but is spread by the lymphatic system and then the bloodstream around the body.
  • The symptoms can last from 3 to 5 days, but a bite is rarely fatal if treated.

Widow spiders are generally timid and try to escape from humans if they feel threatened.

They usually only bite defensively, occasionally when a female is protecting eggs, but mainly when they are accidentally pressed or pinched.

This can happen if, say, someone puts on an old glove or shoe and there is a widow spider inside it, or if they feel under an object where a widow is hiding. Reaching up to a high shelf, where visibility is limited, can also cause similar problems.

To lower your risk of bites, you should therefore shake out old clothing before you put them on, and wear gloves when working outdoors or in sheds and garages.

A brown recluse close up.  Note that unlike most spiders, the recluse has three pairs of eyes.  The spider has a number of nicknames, including: fiddleback spider, brown fiddler, and the violin spider.  Small in size, the spider is highly venomous.
A brown recluse close up. Note that unlike most spiders, the recluse has three pairs of eyes. The spider has a number of nicknames, including: fiddleback spider, brown fiddler, and the violin spider. Small in size, the spider is highly venomous. | Source

Recluse Spiders

Recluse spiders are also known as brown spiders, violin spiders, fiddle-back spiders, or reapers. They are found in warmer places around the world, typically in tropical climates. They are normally between 6 and 12mm in size and are brownish in color, often with a darker, violin-shaped marking on its back.

The mark is what gives the spider its “violin” and “fiddle-back” names, but there are other types of spider with similar looking markings. This can cause confusion when it comes to identifying them, so the best way to tell if a spider is a recluse is by its eyes - most spiders have eight eyes arranged in two rows but the recluse has six eyes arranged in pairs.

Recluse spiders are not native to Florida, but individual spiders from three different species of recluse are occasionally found. Because there are so few of them, the likelihood of getting bitten by a recluse spider in Florida is very small.

The effects of a bite can vary greatly in intensity, from virtually no effect, all the way up to death (in extreme circumstances). As with widow spiders, a typical way to receive a recluse bite is for a person to put on an item of clothing that hasn’t been worn for a long time with a spider insider it, or to reach into a place where a spider is hiding.

Early symptoms of a recluse bite usually begin between two and six hours after the bite and include: blistering, intense pain, and swelling. In serious cases, the blistering can develop into an open sore, known as a “necrotic skin lesion”, or have systemic effects on vital organs.

© 2011 Paul Goodman

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    • b. Malin profile image

      b. Malin 5 years ago

      Well Paul, being I will be going back to Florida again this year...I am going to Book Mark this Hub and Hope I never really need it...But just incase...Well written and oh so very useful and Informative my Friend

    • PaulGoodman67 profile image
      Author

      Paul Goodman 5 years ago from Florida USA

      Thanks for your comment, b.Malin, as I state in the hub, you are very unlikely to encounter a recluse spider. Widows are a little more common, but rarely found indoors, and you would be extremely unlucky to be bitten by one.

    • Ardie profile image

      Sondra 5 years ago from Neverland

      This is why I love Ohio - we don't really have any dangerous bugs or snakes...I dont think. Excellent hub!!

    • kurby90249 profile image

      kurby90249 5 years ago

      Very intresting

    • profile image

      Judy 5 years ago

      My husband and have have just moved to Northern Central Florida.( Ocala)I am so scared of spiders. We are from northern Illinois, I never saw a dangerous spider. I have read information on what spiders to look out for that can cause harm and even death. What can I do to make sure that these dangerous spiders do not get into our home. Can I use a fogger or spray of some kind. I don' want my husband, myself or our small dog bit. Thank you so much, sincerely, Judy

    • profile image

      jack trevally 5 years ago

      spiders are difficult to poison as they don't clean their feet (cockroaches do, however).

    • profile image

      jack trevally 5 years ago

      The best way to kill spiders is to use sticky traps. This has the added advantage of allowing you to see what kind of spiders you have and also gives you a chance to determine the severity of the problem. Heavy duty duct tape will also work, but is more unwieldy. Simply make a duct tape 'line of death' around your garage, in closets, etc. sticky side up.

    • profile image

      Codee 5 years ago

      I am super scared of any insect, and have now lived in FL for 6 months, i can say that spiders are here seems year round. The duct tape thing does actually work, i have caught several insects trying to crawl thru the bottom of my doors. no spiders have ever been caught but i have seen a few hairy nasty little spiders in my house. (yuuuuck)

    • Daughter Of Maat profile image

      Melissa Flagg 5 years ago from Rural Central Florida

      Oh spiders give me the heebee geebees. We have tons of the banana spiders out here in the sticks. We tend to leave them where they are, their webs are actually beautiful in the mornings, and I like their yellow color. (Not the spider, just the color lol)

      Great hub. Voted up and icky.. oh wait there's not button for that lol

    • profile image

      leo 4 years ago

      I have found out raging numbers of some of the worlds deadliest spiders and ime only a kid!

    • profile image

      florida 3 years ago

      Actually, there is one more that most people don't even know about, so it doesn't surprise me it wasn't mentioned in the post.

      The grand-daddy long leg is more deadly than both black widow & Brown recluse.

      However, the fangs are to small to bite humans.

    • profile image

      Lou 2 years ago

      Daddy long legs being venomous is a myth

    • PaulGoodman67 profile image
      Author

      Paul Goodman 2 years ago from Florida USA

      Lou is correct. The Daddy Long Legs venomous/small fangs is a fun story, but has no scientific basis.

    • profile image

      dophin 12 months ago

      my spiders on my Lani are kinda round and are white on top and black on bottom they made a heavey web and I hate running into the weds I keep killing them in 2 days there back any tips to help rid these pests?

    • profile image

      nicholas quinby 7 months ago

      Man i have brown recluses in my bathroom and in my old hanging clothes. Brown/black widows in the back yard and a freaking python stuck up the fire place chimney. okay last part was a joke but i hope no one around here gets bit.

    • profile image

      FWCarpenter 6 weeks ago

      I've got to take some issue with the article. Although there surely have been some recluse spiders (of various species), not a FL native, despite the fact that bites are routinely attributed to them.

    • profile image

      THatGUy 2 weeks ago

      Well... I live in Florida and I frequently see both in my yard. It's actually rare for me not to see one. Once i put up a pool and the brown recluse made tons of webs in the sides of it. Once we were swimming in it and my sister found one climbing up her shoulder. Close call! There a VERY SMALL but packed full of brush forest behind us, but we can tell services to control burn it because of how many animal and people live near it.

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