I've never tried and never thought about it. Considering how a GFCI works, what it does, I can't see any reason why not, though. After all, there are two outlets on the GFCI, and it can operate other outlets on the same circuit.
You might have to be careful, though, about the mechanics of the adapter. Some have a screw that is supposed to screw into the hole where the cover plate screws on and a GFCI doesn't have that hole. I'm not real positive about the spacing of the outlets either, if the adapter plugs into both locations in the outlet.